ࡱ> q` "bjbjqPqP%1::x6b'. b(8~,+j0((&&W1AEl*******$,h.h*9pa#W1pp*&&;-*LLLp&&*Lp*LLzs f{%& #f_$j%*0,+$f/Xf/{%f/{% AH!=jFLlAHAHAH**pAHAHAH,+pppp Amsterdam Academy of ArtsReinwardt Academy A HISTORY IN A GLASS BOXA museological concept of the Museum of the Occupations in EstoniaA ThesisSupervisors: Peter van Mensch Piet PouwMariann RaismaAmsterdam/Tallinn 2001-2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538521" 1. Introduction.  PAGEREF _Toc19538521 \h 4 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538522" 2. The character of a history museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538522 \h 8 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538523" 2.1. Time. Objectivity. Ideology.  PAGEREF _Toc19538523 \h 8 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538527" 2.2. Narrative of a history museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538527 \h 15 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538528" 2.3. A History museum in contemporary context.  PAGEREF _Toc19538528 \h 17 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538529" 2.4. History museum types.  PAGEREF _Toc19538529 \h 20 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538530" 2.5. Memorial museum as an identity.  PAGEREF _Toc19538530 \h 22 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538531" 3. Estonian museum landscape.  PAGEREF _Toc19538531 \h 27 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538532" 3.1. Position games of history museums.  PAGEREF _Toc19538532 \h 30 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538533" 4. Museum of the Recent Past Occupations in Estonia.  PAGEREF _Toc19538533 \h 32 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538534" 5. A Corporate plan.  PAGEREF _Toc19538534 \h 35 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538535" 5.1. Idea of the museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538535 \h 35 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538536" 5.2. Themes of the museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538536 \h 37 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538537" 5.3. Goals.  PAGEREF _Toc19538537 \h 39 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538539" 5.4. Mission statement.  PAGEREF _Toc19538539 \h 40 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538540" 5.5. Strategies.  PAGEREF _Toc19538540 \h 40 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538541" 5.6. Target groups.  PAGEREF _Toc19538541 \h 43 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538543" 6. Feasibility study.  PAGEREF _Toc19538543 \h 50 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538544" 6.1. Structure and services.  PAGEREF _Toc19538544 \h 50 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538545" 6.2. Inner structure of the institution.  PAGEREF _Toc19538545 \h 50 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538547" 6.3. Collection management.  PAGEREF _Toc19538547 \h 56 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538548" 6.3.1. Collection policy.  PAGEREF _Toc19538548 \h 57 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538549" 6.4. Scientific work.  PAGEREF _Toc19538549 \h 59 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538550" 6.5. Public programs.  PAGEREF _Toc19538550 \h 61 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538551" 6.5.1. Educational programs.  PAGEREF _Toc19538551 \h 61 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538552" 6.5.2. Exhibition strategies. Methods of display.  PAGEREF _Toc19538552 \h 65 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538556" 6.5.3. Content of the design.  PAGEREF _Toc19538556 \h 72 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538557" 6.5.4. Route of the museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538557 \h 77 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538558" 6.5.5. Outreach programs.  PAGEREF _Toc19538558 \h 78 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538559" 6.5.6. Exhibition policy.  PAGEREF _Toc19538559 \h 78 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538560" 6.5.7. Orientation and Interpretation.  PAGEREF _Toc19538560 \h 80 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538561" 6.5.8. Marketing.  PAGEREF _Toc19538561 \h 81 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538562" 6.5.9. Visitor research.  PAGEREF _Toc19538562 \h 84 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538563" 6.5.10. Visitor Services.  PAGEREF _Toc19538563 \h 85 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538564" 6.6. Security.  PAGEREF _Toc19538564 \h 87 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538565" 6.7. Financial planning.  PAGEREF _Toc19538565 \h 89 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538570" 7. A Functional Brief.  PAGEREF _Toc19538570 \h 92 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538571" 8. Name of the museum.  PAGEREF _Toc19538571 \h 97 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538572" 9. Remarks and notices.  PAGEREF _Toc19538572 \h 100 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538573" 10. Conclusion.  PAGEREF _Toc19538573 \h 102 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc19538574" 11. Used literature.  PAGEREF _Toc19538574 \h 103APPENDIX: A PROJECT OF THE MUSEUM 1. Introduction. The history of a country is flowing like a river. You cant overview it at one glance from the beginning to an end. You cant see all its layers and secrets, which are kept inside. This is mainly the problem of storytelling. The large amount of different concepts, which try to describe the historical process in my way, dont want to dedicate the gained power to anybody. There are plenty of possibilities to read, to understand and to represent the Past. The fragments of the Past the layers of history - have been changed and will change through the distinct ideologies, processes, personalities and general developments of the societies. The most effective methods to explicate the history exist through a book, a movie or a museum; the best one the combination of all three. A contemporary history museum involves more or less all these features: information, thematical story line, visionarity, visual attractiveness, object-centerness. Even more a museum is the expert of the present-day magic art. The right museum, like the fairy godmother, can turn the frogs into princes. Value and meaning can be conferred instantaneously []. Museology, more precisely the theoretical museology, analyses and researches these transformation processes of the musealized objects; ideologization and development of such a heterogeneous phenomena as a history museum. Museology functions at the conceptual level that is different from that of the basic disciplines. This means that museology doesnt operate on the level of applied sciences and that although museology uses the same methodologies as some basic disciplines (for example the methodologies used in history, semiotics or sociology), it has its independent scientific features at least according to some museology theorists. Not opening the discussion about the scientific position of museology, it has definitely an unique position in the larger cultural context. Museology is the only discipline, which values the association between the heritage and social environment; a museum is one of the most important tools gaining this idea. The history museum as a one of the most important transmitters of the history has an extremely important position defining the processes of the past. While in twenty years ago the aim of the history museum was the presentation of the overall flow of the country, concentrated on state (and) politics; then nowadays the tendency is towards some aspect of the stream and towards the people/persons. Whos history the museum actually represents and why? What is the meaning of the history museum in the contemporary world? The closer research of the phenomenon of the history museum is the theoretical basis for this thesis (Chapter 2). Next to the general overview about the history museum types (Chapter 2.4.), especially the memorial museum as an occurrence (Chapter 2.5.), also the current status of Estonian museum situation will be analyzed (Chapter 3.).Museology precedes practice and deals with the theoretical study of those phenomena that manifest themselves in practice. This is a natural combination of theoretical and practical sides of the heritage preservation. At the end museology develops from practice and is confirmed by practice. Therefore it is logical that after the theoretical introduction the main emphasis of this thesis will been turned to the problems of one concrete history museum in Estonia. The recent history of Estonia is still a very delicate topic in Estonian overall historical process. Wars, occupations and deportations are the keywords of the period, which still are alive in the souls of the people. The Occupation regime of Soviet Union was condemned as a criminal by the state government of Estonia in the 18th of June in 2002. But next to these negative impressions one can find from these last fifty years also positive ones: lively cultural life during the Soviet occupation, social security, national movements, the Singing Revolution, the recreation of Estonian republic. All the extensive processes have different sides. But what we want to remember? Who decides what to remember and how we want to remember? Creating the concept of the museum these are the key-questions of the whole process. People started to talk about the Soviet past, about its negative and positive sides, after the formulation of Republic of Estonia in 1991. More and more occurred, that the detailed research about this time was needed. Many books were published, even some exhibitions but nothing visually permanent. Therefore the emigree-Estonian foundation, Kistler-Ritso Estonian Foundation, decided to sponsor the formation of the research institution and the museum, which deals with the recent history in Estonia - the time of the occupations - the period between 1940 1991. The museum should be built in the first half of 2003. The Museum of the Recent Occupations of Estonia is a private foundations` museum, which has its own collection. In addition to these objects the museum plans to loan/deposit the artifacts from the other governmental museums and from the private collectors. The concept of the museum has been discussed, but the constitution hasnt been written. Also the structure of the institution, view of the programs and the concepts of the exhibition plan are incomplete. In principle the written concept of the museum should be ready before the open architectural contest, becoming the basis for the architecture. Actually the process developed contrariwise. The aim of this thesis is to present the working concept of the contemporary museum, which deals with recent history. The concept includes three main theme blocks: a theoretical part, which includes mission, goals, policies of this museum (Chapter 5); a practical division a draft model for the institutional structure, an analyze of the target groups, a collection and communication management and a concept of the design program (Chapter 6) and thirdly a feasibility study, which studies the museum building itself (Chapter 7). The aim of this thesis is not to create a profoundly detailed and clear action plan, but to analyze the current situation of the museum both inside and outside point of view, systemize the activities of the museum planning and to suggest some ideas and draw out some weaknesses of the museum plan. While the author of this thesis is an outsider of the real museum preparing, then it is impossible and unnecessary to go very much in detail, but the (fresh / critical / admiring) glance from the outside is always necessary. Creating the new institution needs a lot of original and creative ideas. But furthermore the museum should not be afraid of the idea of Tom Peters: dont bother about your idea, when you can steel it from the others! The museum can study and take over many good and effective things from the other, already working museums. *****Used methodologies reflect the different phases of the thesis when the theoretical part was mostly based on scientific research (written material), then the analysis of the memorial museums was mainly based on the exploratory (visits to other similar type museums), but also scientific and sociological research (interviews). The concept of the Museum of the Recent Past Occupations is based on scientific, sociological, exploratory and evaluative research. *****Author of this thesis tried to collect different opinions and visions, how the potential visitors want to see the museum. These have been included into the concept of the museum. Creating the conception also the wishes of the creators of the museum have been considered. *****Thanks to my supervisors Peter van Mensch and Piet Pouw. Special thanks to Heiki Ahonen, Arvo Pesti, Madis Mikkor, Siiri Vallner & Indrek Peil, lle Reimets, Jan Erik Schulte and to all the people, who shared the ideas about this museum.Thanks to UNESCO, Ministry of Culture and Estonian Cultural Endowment. The character of a history museum.2.1. Time. Objectivity. Ideology. Museum is like a vessel. It contains everything, what has been important in a certain time of civilized world and therefore it is a wonderful mirror of the societies and values through the ages. The collections hidden in the storages, the influential shows, the material secluded from the museum represent the numerous merits of various periods. Museum constructs the micro-cosmos of the real society and creates the commensurability between the times. In the same time, the representation of the museum tells as much as about past as about present, while the displays symbolize mostly contemporary ethics and aesthetics. Three keywords time, objectivity and ideology - are the main woofers in the western museum world. Every museum, even the smallest one, has to deal with these categories. TIME is the theme, OBJECTIVITY is the method and IDEOLOGY is the result. Is this arrangement still valid in the contemporary museum scene? Should one follow this line just because one finds it the best one or is it just an inevitable scheme for a museum? The relevancy of these keywords is the topic of the first chapter. Contemporary western world pursues the linear timeline, which leads the man towards the permanently improving life quality and products. Museum as a one of the major new institutions from the beginning of Modernism, enfolds all the similar features to the general ideas of modernism: idea of progress, contrast between past and future, rationality, linear and classifying arrangement. Whereas proto-museums were concerned with the naming and ordering the universe [] the museums which developed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were clearly more influenced by the modern idea of progress and the modern preoccupation with representing humankinds place in the world [].Linear timeline as a basis for the idea of progress originates from the Judea-Christian tradition and got its new strength in the Age of Reason. The Line of the Progression has been turned also the main rule of the democratic and consumerist society: western human life should be seen as a permanent improvement. A museum was reflection of this betterment the museum display allowed control over history. [] It is itself a created past, implying by its authority a command over time and space. This important role in the society converted the museum an extremely proud and self-confident institution; features, which were typical to the other parvenu from this time period, to the class of bourgeois. Both of them carry the important stamp of the capitalist society: main aim of the existence is to collect. Boris Groys was right: we are, what we collect. And possibility for self-creation of own identity by collecting was even more important, while when the general past was lead by God, then the personal and unfolding past will be lead by People themselves. Emphasizing the linearity of the time, one stresses also on the difference between God and People.The didactic linearity is represented by two forms in the museums. The great linearity is connected with the general development of the society (nation, state), the historical narrative from the first human beings to the contemporary community. This type one can see mostly in the national history museums: the exposition starts with stone-axes and ends somewhere in 1980s. The other type of linearity is based on personal stories lifelines of considerable persons, which give us the illustrative example about the values and the lifestyle of some certain period. Museum display reinforces the idea of progress also through the emphasis on the auratic object. This is especially so in the national museums which often have access to the richest objects the great masterpieces, unique artifacts and famous artists. This is the museological reflection of the Great Narrative. One can say that the museum as a type of preserving objects is essential only to the societies with linear time concept. Through this concept the preservation is legitimated while one cant catch the past. In the linear time concept the past is over, it doesnt come back, one can only memorize and worship it. In this context a museum as a memorizing institution has an extremely important role. In the other side its completely useless, because the past is not connected with future. The contrast between the past and the future is immense and the role of the museum is quite clear its` face has been turned towards the past. A museum has to carry the whole heaviness of the Past, because all the other institutions are active with plans for the Future.Together with the rise of post-modern ideas (at least in theory) also the modernistic concept of time changed. A general shift from homogenous, public time to various, private times reflects also the tendencies in the museums world. One couldnt forget, that a contemporary museum is per se a modernistic institution and more or less stays the one; but some principal changes have been emerged. Together with the loss of confidence to the linear progress of history and to the absolute truths and values, the museums have started to enlarge their identity and open themselves as an institution. Instead of very great periods and masters the minority and secondary-value cultures and persons are honored. The range of the themes has been broadened; also the principle, that everything is worth of collecting and showing, is becoming more popular. Especially favorite is recent past and the phenomena, which extends through the different ages. Instead of the great narratives the boundaries and differences between the high and low culture are fading homogenization of culture is reflected already in the museum (collecting) politics. In the same time one shouldnt forget, that the blockbuster exhibitions are becoming more widespread and influential and museums try to identify themselves through these major representative events.An alteration from public time to private times is reflected through an emphasis on nostalgia and appreciation of usual objects with personal history. Next to the history the intangible heritage is becoming to be valuable; memories, (personal) stories and legends are turning the basis / themes for the exhibitions. A contemporary museum allows the visitor to walk through the ages and (sometimes) to connect the past issues with the current society. The enchantment of the present-day world is an existence of many parallel times and places. This intensification of the experience of synchronicity, and the concomitant destruction of diachrony - the loss of a sense of the past are promoted by the heritagization of history. This is essential change of understanding the museums` development during the last decades. There exists no general history anymore, but large amount of pieces of patrimony heritage environments. A heritage institution doesnt want to freeze the time, achieving a state beyond time as modern museum tended to do, but on contrary to meld the time, making it understandable for all the present-day visitors. One shouldnt underestimate the comprehension, simpleness and attractivity as important key-words next to the economical and authority aspect of the heritage industry. Heritage as a part of the wider-service-class culture expanded largely during the 1980s, especially in Anglo-American culture and developed an important part of the culture industry. Just the fairytaleness and mythical energy of the [historical M.R.] event or story seems to fade, and museums consciously or unconsciously started to fight against this by creating the illusional or hyperreal environments. As it was in the beginning of the public museum institution, the museum became again the prosthesis of the imagination. Heritage institutions are closely connected to the creation of new artificial realities, so called simulacrums a world of perfect copies. Simulacrum leads us to the next important key-word of the museum institution to the objectivity. As understood, the main objective of heritage institutions is not a neutral truth anymore, but excitement and comprehensible overview about some certain issue. During the Age of Modernism the aim of the museum was to tell the true, uninvolved and accurate story; this notion was supported by the philosophy, which implied the rigid objectivism also from the other disciplines. Objectivity of representation was ensured by the classification systems; taxonomy became the basic display method of the museum exhibitions. Huge plain museum space with some lonesome objects, muse clinique, was the other display possibility, which followed the principle of neutrality. Creation of context was creation of fakeness. In western world the question of objectivity rose only in the late 1970s together with the identity crisis of the museum institution. Cool or dramatic presentation; emphasis on neutrality or emotionality these are essential questions, which answers change continually depending whether the main goal of the museum is to provide an informative knowledge or emotional experience. Interdisciplinarity as currently promoted key-word for contemporary objectivity is one of the efforts mixing these two trends into one whole in the same time keeping the potentiality to the fairness. One way or another, the very basic aim of the museum is to turn the visitor to trust the proposed story. Trust is an important notion connected with objectivity. Although the plurality of concepts might be sometimes confusing, the reliance towards the museums actually rises together with the development of professions, which provide services based on an implicit notion of trust trust that the consumer has in the professional. Therefore the museums` confidence lies even more on the museum employees than the collections. Together with a rise of the importance of the curator, especially in the art museums, the displays turn more and more subjective ones; but for the visitors they remain as very true pictures of some certain issues. Its very difficult to reduce this burden of the centuries; this principle, what has been the very essence of the museum institution loosing the principle of trust and fairness, museum looses one part of its essence. The third key-word of the museum identity is the ideology, which is generally a very secluded unity in the contemporary museum and which essence hasnt changed much from the beginning of the public museum institution. A museum is like clay. It has been formed according to the dominating political and social principles, paid duties also to the fashion. There is no such thing as a neutral history; history making is always connected with winner ideology. During the changes in the society, the content/name/design of the museum can be easily altered. Different memory layers of the museum survive sometimes, but this is not the canon. The usual case is that one want to forget or at least to tackle the preliminary history of the institution. A museum as a phenomenon is a sophisticated mixture of power and knowledge. And it is very difficult to draw the border between these characteristics. Power is involved in the construction of truths and knowledge has implications for power. In its most common form one can talk about the power of a society. The totality of the ideology surrounds a man in every political system. The dogma of the capitalist consumer society defines the rules to everybody living in this circle. The majority of cultural institutions and especially the museums are some of the closest friends and co-workers of the society. While a museum owns the ace-cards defining the past, present and future of this society, it can tell the story of power in a very different forms and levels. What it does is enlightening the narrative according to the traditional convention of the society. The idea of the capitalist politics is to subordinate the people; the ideology uses the same methods as a man himself. No confrontation, but co-operation. It is the phenomenon of us-mentality, based on the ideas of traditional western democracy, but actually it goes back to the classical age, where the apparatus of a discipline mechanism were clearer to follow. It trains the moving, confused, useless multitudes of bodies and forces into a multiplicity of individual elements small, separate cells, organic autonomies, genetic identities and continuities, combinatory segments. You might be an afro-American, gay, or woman; everybody has its own sector. It is a soft but solid mechanism of surveillance. It is a totality of democracy. This kind of discipline produces individuals; it is a specific technique of power that regards individuals both as objects and as instruments of its exercise. The task of the museums is to show it in the visible/touchable/audible form. Through this action they became a part of a disciplinary power. The latter is exercised through the invisibility - which actually is the strongest feature of the museum institution. As far as heritage presentations are concerned, this showed the way in which seemingly peripheral institutions such as museums could be seen not simply as reflection of ruling ideas but as actually constituting one of the apparatuses which ensure the maintenance of the present social system. Museums could be seen as important by this very peripherality: their messages could easily be assimilated because of their seeming uncontentiousness. A museum is a continually working social machine, which has some certain norms: objectivity, balance, traditionalism, passivity. For the museums it is the standard to correspond to these socially determined conditions. Besides this a museum is a perfect medium creating the Norm by himself, which is together with the Law, the Word (Parole) and the Text the powers of a modernist society. Almost in every museum one can see the norm of a history, the norm of a good art, the norm of a better future. Like surveillance and with it, normalization became one of the greatest instruments of power at the end of the classical age, during the time of the first public museums. Therefore it is logical, that this new establishment took the playing rules of the society as granted; normalization as one of these. In general, a museum doesnt invent, it absorbs. Flexibility and adoption of new norms and tendencies of the community has been one of the main characteristics of the museum through the centuries. A museum presents these new norms as the objective opinions and therefore the visitor takes the offering as a true fact. Thats why the most peculiar to the museum as a tool of the society is its subconsciousness. The visitor obtains the museums ideology in a subconscious way this is the power and danger of a museum. Some theoreticians declare, that a museum can be powerful. One has forgotten one thing. They already are power full. The winner chooses the music how to listen the melodies of the past, present and future. Extremely clearly was this stated during the cold war, especially in the trial of strength between Soviet Union and United States. Winner can pay some smart money for the weak and ugly. Ethnographical and colonial museums are the best examples of this form. Already these names, like anthropological or ethnographical hint to the statement of inferiority of these cultures. Much discussion has been about the presentation of their artifacts, which characterize their cultural identity only in an aesthetic and formal way, but these types of museums cannot have another conclusion. Their content is an exciting form and their philosophy is a sympathetic superiority. Winner can compensate quite generously to the people / processes, who / which have been suffered (mostly because of the winner). This form of a museum is a kind of payment of the debt, which has been paid, at least partly, through creating the museum for them. These are museums for woman, for national and sexual minorities, for agriculture. Also abovementioned ethnographical and anthropological museums belong into this group, but dominant part go to the Jewish, war and memorial museums. Pain and suffering of the people impress the visitors and through the personal experiences of their tragedies during the exhibition the good society gets its bonus points. Here one can see and listen the talk about morality, ethics and values of a public, crowned by the idea of an improvement of a community. Are we really moving towards the better future? The nature of a museum is to show the progression of a society and a museum is doing it well.Winner likes to show himself and his predecessors. Continuity of the traditions is the main characteristics of this type of museums. A museum as a re-production of the myth of wealthy bourgeois nation. In some countries the same attitude has a little bit different form: the story of the nation is represented not so much through the period-houses, but through the National Museums (which differs from the history museums). The clearest form of the winner mentality one can see in the (state) history museums. This museum type is the direct answer to the ideologisation of a culture. As one of the newest museum types, it contracts officially and openly with the matters of society. The official tour through the centuries is actually guided by our own habitual mentality cemented by the authorative values. While history museum developed together with the development nation states, it deals mostly with the problems of nationality and national state. But already the new breezes are blowing - the transformation from the museum of nationality to the museum of internationality is on its way. All these above-mentioned types of museums illustrate the political/ideological nature of the museum quite clearly. These museum types exist in all western countries, representing the power of a nation / state in one form or another. The majority of the museums (at least the public museums) dont deal with anything, which isnt connected with national pride/shame and power. The forms have been changed, but not the ideas; ideology was, is and will be the prerequisite of the museum identity. 2.2. Narrative of a history museum. Before analyzing a history museum in the contemporary context one has to move backwards in the beginning of a history museum as a category. The type of the classical history museum emerged quite late compared to the other main museum forms and at first the history museum was a spin-off of an art collection. The first history collection, so called museum Jovianum, created by Italian bishop, scholar and collector Paolo Giovio in the 16th century, included four categories of paintings: deceased poets and scholars, living poets and scholars, artists and political leaders and monarchs. This kind of history museum became enormously popular with noble and wealthy collectors in 16.-17. centuries. A reflection of a past was very closely connected with art, even could be said, that these were art collections, which represented h i s t o r i c a l l y important persons. An early museum, a total theatre, the mixture of art treasury, local history and wunderkammer, can be seen as the self-projection of a prince, a state or a community []. One of the most important goals of a dynasty in the Renaissance and Baroque periods was to demonstrate its prominent role in both business and politics, and to develop a system for assuring the transmission of prosperity to future generations. When the nature of collections changed in the 19th century and museums transformed from dynastic into public institutions, the goals remained much the same, although now on national, regional and communal level. The dynasty / person gave the position of holding the heritage to the nation / community. Also the study of history shifted from the historic persons to the e v e n t s and their documentation and artistic interpretation. This important transition in the museums is connected with the greater changes of society, reflecting the paradigmatical change from the social system of personalities to the social system of national communities. The most important keyword connected with the history museums is the word nation. The history museums as we know them today are essentially connected with the development of the national identity of western countries. This principal change was at first presented only in the design of the representative rooms of royalty. The new attitude was shown in the royal battle galleries, which were connected with the rising nationalistic spirit. From this moment onwards the main purpose of the history museum has been the satisfaction as many different social groups as possible. From the beginning of 19th century a history museum developed together with contemporary open public museum ideology and with a new museological program which was set of calculated, reasonable rules according to which institutions should be reorganized, spaces arranged, and behavior regulated. This system was perfect for all types of museums, but especially good for the history museums, because exactly there was notably important what to watch and how to read it.A history museum turned to be a consciousness of the whole state. The history museums developed together with the evolvement of the national state system and national awareness together with the establishment of new states and transformation of the world map after the Napoleonic wars, national revolutions in the mid-19th century Europe and after the WW I. A history museum was the entryway of nationalism; in the same time it was the effective media instrument of a state. A history museum aspired to be compendia of knowledge - during last two centuries these two keywords are editorials of the ideology of a museum. It cannot exist without the power of the state and/or nation a history museum has always the face of the system. 2.3. A History museum in contemporary context.The basis for this set of calculated rules and arranged spaces the traditional museum was one of the main ideas of classical discourse: naming, defining, systemizing of the enfolding world. Discovery of the world, what started in early Renaissance, crossed the finish line somewhere in the middle of 20th century. In the museum world the crisis started in the second half of 20th century, where the clear statements and definitions started to become ineffectual. Museums started to change from the classifying houses, which were actively engaged over time in the construction of varying rationalities to the creativity-based playing grounds, where the aim was to teach the user how to cope with information; idea, which leads the museum content back to the origin. This was a essential change. The authority of the museums, the autocratic and supreme voice of the national state was replaced by the insecure and open museum institution. This tendency continues to flow and various activities only supporting this approach. Together with democratization process a program of bringing the public into its [museums`- M. R.] world [] has attempted to demystify the museum and its processes. The enigmatic institution for the small brotherhoods has changed into affordable and understandable supermarket for everybody. As Boris Groys has been said: the ideal of universal truth is replaced by the reality of universal accessibility. In the current world the Truth has been changed by the Accessibility no one makes the decisions for you in advance (at least not publicly), nowadays the visitor creates the Verity. This multiplicity of verities is the prerequisite for diminishing the superior authority and objectivity of the museum institution in general. Accessibility la Andr Malraux`, when he talked about the museum without walls is becoming truth today through the mass production of publications, web of virtual museums and museums` collections in Internet.National history museum cannot accomplish the needs of the globalizing society like it was only a century ago, while instead of nation there are lots of other important categories playing the role in the civilization. National states are changing into the commune states (both cultural and economical communes), and the museums reflect this silent transformation in the society quite effectively. While about one hundred years ago there was enough of one general history museum, then nowadays the state museum is only a mother-museum for the group of branches or a competitive to other specialized history museums. Especially the museums of social history becoming more and more prevalent. This leads to another change in the mentality of the museum. A museum as mater of patrimony stops to be the only keeper of national heritage, and becoming just one of the stewards of the history next to the other heritage organizations and private collectors. The position of the museum presently is not anymore above, but next to the other preservation institutions. The most important issue to all these organizations is to pre-serve the legacy of the past, no matter which is the exact form of this establishment. The second mayor change in the mentality of the history museums emerged in the end of 1960s together with the texts of Foucault and Bourdieu. The exaggerated tirades of an earlier day, created by those who persistently labeled museums morgues, mausoleums and charnel houses, institutions dead to the world around them, gave way to assignments of responsibility for sustaining the class structure, spreading racism and protecting the canonized narratives of Western civilization. Museums were started to see as social institutions, as instruments of the society, where the current history was done but not by the curators or visitors, but by the system of society. Next to this last topic, which was a popular issue in 1970s, for the health of the museum even more important seemed to be the fact that the museums can be alive and powerful institutions. From this time period started apropos also the second museum revolution, which aimed more visitor-oriented, production-based, active and educational museum than earlier one. Edutainment is still one of the main key-words in the current museum politics.Somewhere inside these ideas also the expansion of the museum subject is settled its purview extends beyond objects to ideas. Theme of the museum becomes more valuable than the museum objects hidden inside. The IDEA of the museum is saleable - peace, genocide or slum - the objects have secondary value; they are only illustrations for the major concept. Decrease of the value of the objects is reflected also in the current strategies of exhibition policy, which are concentrated more on thematical and educational displays. All these major transitions during the last decades indicate to the need for the conceptual change in the museum world. But as the museologists claim, the source of the biggest problem of the museum crisis is not an institution crisis but a motive and methodology crisis. The public doesnt find messages in museums. ola sees the solution in the total museum that will integrate information from various areas of heritage. Today, when the majority of the museums are (at last!) specialized, one wants to change them back to the multi-disciplinary ones! This shows again the developments in the society information society turns into the experience society, where the most valuable is not information anymore, but the experiences, involvement into the process and personal remembrances; the result is usually a mixture of various types of sources. This might be also the route for the museums; they survive only in co-operation with information and experience. Or as Tomislav ola has defined this new holistic, multidisciplinary institution, or better, permanent action in the complex field of heritage, is a museum constantly on the move, able to provoke contemplation as well as to entertain. [] It becomes a specific form for popular scientific and artistic experience, as it employs many channels of sensory, emotional and intellectual communication. Although it seems to be a very idealistic view to the future of the museums, three key-words are definitely important for the prospective existence of the museum institution: museums should become more popular (= comprehensible), experience based and communicative. Preceding the changes in the museums and in museology, the meaning of the contemporary history museum is orientation towards the posterity. A history museum should be a forum: a mediator between the artifact and human; a place for a dialogue between the past and present. 2.4. History museum types.The history museum is the most common museum type in the contemporary world. It has two reasons: firstly, the differentiation inside the history museums is huge (even might say that one cannot speak about the history museums in general); the second reason comes from the state politics every self-respecting state/region/city should have a history museum. According to Peter van Mensch`s museum classification the history museum is one of the specialized museum sub-types - archeological and historical museum type. The main types of the history museums are National museums, (usually) not connected with genius lociLocal history museums, City museums, Archeology museums,Memorial museums, Open-air museumsHistoric houses (sites, monuments). connected with genius lociA national museum is an official state history museum, which is supported on national level. This is the museum type, which was special for the 19th century museological development, as an expression of national collectivity. These were places, which affirmed their national identity and helped them survive. More or less with same identity a national museum still exists but as typical to the aged technique, its large and working proof but slow and might be not so effective as years ago. Also the architecture reflects the same heroizing ideas, while majority of national museums were built together with their creation in the 19th - beginning of 20th centuries. When three first mentioned museum types are the most common ones, then the two latter ones belong to the most popular museum types of all. Next to a national museum also an open-air museum is very deeply connected with the growth of the national identity in the 19th century. Together with the growth of the self-esteem of a nation Artur Hazelius developed in Skansen a first museum, which was devoted to folk-culture, ethnography and social history. This was an extremely important turn for the former growth of the other open-air museums all over the world, also it changed the identity of a museum in general a museum became a home of national inspiration. This wasnt museum-like artificiality, but reality of the past. The historic house, another type of a history museum, has similar features as an open-air museum: atmosphere of authenticity and trustfulness. While in the ordinary history museums the artifacts only e n d u r e, then in this context they l i v e there. The feeling of context the impression of truth of a past - is the main feature, why these types are the most visited museums. As a type the historic house museum was a successful instrument to teach love of a country. Most of the historic houses tell the story of a great national, state or cultural hero this means the promotion of some certain cultural identity. From this search for authenticity and integrity grew out the period room installations in the museums, which didnt have (enough) genuine atmosphere. The trend, which began in the beginning of 20th century, started in the art museums, where dominated about ten years, afterwards it moved to the history museums and sites. Period room became as a permanent element of the exhibit vocabulary of history museums. And still, in the beginning of 21. century, the period room or more precisely a theme room (a bed-room in the prison camp, living room of some certain period etc) is one of the most popular methods to reach the public. Usually they are just flashes towards the past, a newly created spaces, which dont have any authentic contact with real atmosphere of the past. Creation of these kinds of sincere spaces will become more and more important in the museum, while the hyperreality becomes more and more obvious in the different medias also in the museums. Museums are filled with fictional environments, which must represent the history in its best way imitation is perfect and hereafter the reality will be succumbed. This is the totality of historical recreation. In this point the next type of the history museums appear at the stage. Hyperreal spaces and recreation of the past are popular also in the memorial museums. 2.5. Memorial museum as an identity.Memorial museum is a 20th century phenomenon. They are like the memorials to the 20th century historical events retaining their remembrance. Next to the most common memory form - to the monument the memorial museum nearly has gained as important role as a monument. The main difference between them is that memorials do not tell the story, they only serve as reminders for those who already know. Symbolical value of the monument will be replaced by descriptional value of the museum. Memorial museums emerged as a first wave after the II WW and then after the end of the Cold War, following the collapse of Soviet Union. In the turn of the century, together with the extension of democratic ideas this museum type is reaching more and more important position in the scale of different history museum types. All the museums, which are dealing with occupations, resistance, genocide etc place into this category, while in all these cases the museum has only one aim to memorize. To create the speaking monument for or against of. In these museums one can see the clearest judgments and effulgent heroes. Even more. Visiting the memorial museum is kind of sacral event. Visit consists an act of sublimation, where is possible to scrape in your conscience and heartache. It is kind of confessional. Museum has turned to the church a church of conscience. Memorial museums consist of certain features, which make them a separate branch of the history museums in general. There is always a clear reason for a creation of a memorial museum; they are usually emerging after some sadly significant and influential event after the wars, accidents, negative processes; change of the political course; revolution or the death of some important person. In 1999 the first organization for memorial museums was created: International Committee for memorial Museums for Public Crimes against Humanity was founded within the scope of ICOM. Their definition is the following: Museums` purpose is to commemorate the victims of state and socially determined, ideologically motivated crimes. They are frequently located at the original historical sites, or at places chosen by the victims of such crimes for the purpose of commemoration. This type of memorial museums is at the moment also the most forceful one and the following analysis is also based mainly on this sub-type of museums.The used methodologies for memorial museums might be different: a museum can sound heroizing, romantic, ideological or depressive, but all of them have this specific emotional and personal background, where the visitor can see the things from the point of view of the witness. While majority of the memorial museums are connected with repressions and resistance, the themes are usually disturbing ones. It has to harm, because the hurt turns one to think. Preponderance of the museums might keep the visitor neutral and passive, but this museum type acts contrariwise - different types of cruelties and sufferings move majority of the people immediately, and mostly emotionally. Visitor identifies or contrasts automatically with the real sufferer, and repeatedly it creates a kind of expropriated masochistic pleasure. Memorial museum hold double typology, while bending the idea of history and memoriality emphasizing only on memorable history. Latter creates pathos and exalted mood in the museum. There is no way of double thinking, any laugh or easiness. The visitor becomes a part of this play system; he can only follow the route. Sometimes the used typology and methods follow actually the same system, what the museum is fighting at. Memorial museum is very nation-orientated and therefore deeply connected with the identity of national history museum. Whatever is the theme, the basis is always the value of the nation; usually the national events or heroes are memorized. Apropos, in the future memorial museums might stay the last strongholds of nationality. Memorial museums might situate in the historically meaningful places (battlefields, headquarters of some institutions etc), thus the genius loci of the place itself is very intensive. In this case the creation of the memorial atmosphere is simple, because the authentic space rules over the whole arrangement and details (which might be also imitations or not connected with the former content of the building). Usually in these real memory places the sense of the past has a most important role; it follows the visitor and guides him towards the indisputable emotion (i.e. House of Terror, Budapest; Genocide Museum in Vilnius, Anne Frank House, Amsterdam).Many memorial museums are created also to the place, which per se dont have any special meaning. Nevertheless, the new complex itself can create a massive memorial to the victims of some tragical issue (i.e. The Holocaust Museum in Washington, Jewish Museum in Berlin). In this museum one creates a new type of memorial memory, where the place is unimportant, but the building as an object creates the unique sacral space for the succeeding pilgrims. The object gains the meaning of a symbol and shrines also the place around it. Compared to the historical buildings the modern ones are not so concrete and descriptive, but more metaphorical and conceptual (also in their content). The original artifacts, replicas and educative/comparable material inside the building are collected from different locations and are connected with each other according to the vision of the curators. Display can support the symbolical value of the building (Washington) or reduce it (Berlin). The other problematical issue with new, fancy and contemporary buildings is the museum space in general. In the typical popular memorial museum one walks through very modern and tasteful high-tech methods about the pain and suffering of the past. This is a laudation to the contemporary society. Distress is over and one can only regret about the past, past thats promoted as something which is completed; display is orientated only on the former issues. This extremely comfortable and secure building can protect you from any possible destruction coming outside, therefore allows the visitor to forget all the similar torments from our current present. This strong contradiction between the past and present is the main drawback of this type of museum. Almost all countries in western world have their own memorial museums. They might call them resistance, war or recent past museum, but the theme is more or less similar the 20th century battle between wrong and right. Memorial museums started to emerge in Western Europe after the end of WW II, among first ones some of the major concentration camps. Memorial and museum in Auschwitz-Birkenau was created by Polish Parliament on July 2, in 1947; the environments were actually opened in 1962 (Birkenau) and 1977 (Auschwitz). The first wave of memorial museums started in 1970s; more than twenty years has been healed the wounds of the war, in the same time the main powers of the world politics were affirmed. Besides the concentration camps (Mechelen Museum of Deportation and the Resistance) also the resistance museums were created, which depicted the fight against fascists during the WW II (National War and Resistance Museum in Overloon, Museum of Danish Resistance, Norways Resistance Museum etc). United States reached to the large holocaust museum only in 1985, which soon became barely a synonym for the genocide museums. In the 1990s started a new boom of the recent past museums; the emphasis was on more general ideas although the themes were more or less similar: The Museum of Tolerance or The Museum of Cold War, when to speak about American examples. In Eastern-Europe the memorial museums existed also during the Soviet time, especially popular were memorial museum for some political events and persons (it was a time, where the line between the right and wrong was very sharply confirmed, so the form of memorial museum suited there perfectly), the memorial museums against the Soviet time started in mid-1990s, last one was opened in Budapest only this spring. One of the main political prisons of Soviet Union in Perm was turned to the Memorial Museum of the History of Political Repression and Totalitarianism at Perm-36 only in 1998; a museum, which represents the tragedy of tens of millions who went through the political repression of gulag system. Museum is one of the few memorials about the political terror of Soviet system in Russia. In the Baltic states the movement of memorial museums against occupation regime started from Lithuania in 1992, followed by Latvia in 1993; both were organized and financed by private foundations. Hopefully after ten years Estonia follows their lead.Political and visual approach of the memorial museum depend much on the time period, when it was formed and region, where it was founded. Temperament and attitude analyzing the topic is different relying much also how long and strongly the country has been suffered but also which aesthetical categories are dominating in the region. The main attitude of the exposition adheres much also whether it is a new building or an historical one, while historical background allows to regenerate the past interiors and emotions much easily. Different display solutions like total or segmental space, a chronological or thematical approach, principles of statement or excitement and activity and interactivity in the exhibition will be analyzed in the Chapter 6.5.2.Looking at these memorial displays in general one can say, that in Middle- and East-Europe the museums have a desire to recreate the atmospheres, their shows are characterized as charismatic performances; in Northern-Europe in contrary there is a tendency to exhibit the linear line of the history in a plain and neutral way. Memorial museums in Germany and France are somewhere in the middle, taking the best from the both sides blending the smaller thematical compositions with a general chronological order. When former days all the memorial museums tended to concentrate on the objects and were mainly document-orientated, then more and more also thematical compositions are becoming to be fashionable. This is especially emphasized in the Holocaust Museum in Washington, which is as much a theatrical stage as it is a collections-based museum; that is, the objects are largely tools for illuminating the experiences of a historical era rather than ends in themselves. Probably just this narrative centered approach influenced the dispositions of European memorial museums, but in the same time one shouldnt also forget the general tendencies in the current cultural industry. Which is the face and attitude of The Museum of Recent Past Occupations in Estonia is still under the question. Hopefully it can use effectively the advantages of contemporary diversified memorial museum scenery. 3. Estonian museum landscape.There are more than 150 museums in Estonia (they havent been counted exactly); many of them are dealing with history and local history. Besides the small private museums, period houses, room-museums or memorial houses dedicated to some important Estonian or an event, there are also some large history museums like The History Museum of Estonia in Tallinn, Estonian National Museum in Tartu, city museums in the bigger cities of Estonia (Tallinn, Tartu, Narva) and county museums in every county capital (altogether 15). In addition one can find also the art museums, museums of natural history, university museums, technology centers etc. Although the total number of the museums is high, actually only part of them do actively exist usually because of the stabile support of the state, county or city. The foundations and private organizations are still not so strong and constant to compete with state. Main reasons exist in the fact, that the private organizations are not interested in creating / financing the museum, because it is not attractive institution in general. The other reason lies in the large amount of money, what is needed for constructing / renovating and maintaining of museum as a building and as an institution. But besides these permanent financial problems even more important question of the museum work must be answered: this is the question of purpose. The question of aiming and methodology gaining this is a main problem of current museum world in general. The development of different types of museums is similar to the other European countries in the end of 19th - beginning of 20th century. Problems related to the Estonian museums are lying somewhere else, probably in the current cultural politics of the state, in the minds of the museum people and in the understanding of the (potential) museum visitors. But first of all one couldnt forget the Soviet period of the museums. Some of them look still quite old-fashioned, but although most of them are already restored, the Soviet time store mentality and background of boring and senseless (more than ideology) institution has still quite strongly preserved. The opposition against the museum institution is especially sharp speaking with art museums. Gradually its starting to change - this reflects also in the numbers of the visitors: when in 1995 was the total of museum visitors only 509 000 people, then in 2001 already 972 000. At present there are four main difficulties of a Estonian museum (besides the permanent money problem), which are partly connected with Soviet past and partly with consumerist present: Lack of difference. Estonian museums are very similar and ordinary in theircontent. Due to the similar collecting policy the museums hold many resembling artifacts. Whats wrong about that, one might ask? In principle nothing, only the attitude towards the museum changes. The museum isnt a unique treasury anymore, but an ordinary storehouse; the museum looses the magic for the public, who comes to see the wonder or at least something special. There is no use of giant museums, which doesnt have any specialty or interest. To be effective means creating a museum which is different in the content or in the design, through special kind of attitude and interests. A museum should think, what is the most important/interesting/valuable/attractive inside their museum space and how they can use their own advantages; when needed, one have to change their mission and turn the whole collection, research and communication policy into this one clear direction.2. Lack of interest towards the present problems. Museums are usually encysted into their specific problems and themes, which are not understandable or not motivating to the public or meant only to some narrow interest group. Living in their own ivory tower keeps them away from the current problems and also from the present visitors. Actual problems or at least the comparison with the current issues with the historical ones helps to enliven and actualize the display and to make it more understandable one. 3. Lack of attractiveness. In the museum dominates the attitude, that the objecttalks more or less by itself. Therefore the main emphasis is on the objects and not on the context and explanations. If something is there, it is usually descriptive, neutral and boring. But actually physical objects signify within narrative systems. Problem is connected with the concepts and different methods of the presentation.4. Lack of marketing. All the items in the museums have the equal value at leastmost of them are somehow important and therefore they are also showed in this way. The public takes this attitude and uses it while understanding the museum: a museum has lot of things but I dont know any of them; they are strangers for me. The strategy of the consumer society acts on contrary: one restates and promotes some objects repeatedly and transform them quite familiar to the potential audience. The idea behind this is the overproduction of things, the creation of the immense assortment, where one has to create some sort of hierarchy based on the selection: familiar not familiar. Becoming familiar to the customer is an essential change towards a success. The change of this attitude is a problem of marketing, which is mostly missing in the museum context. Effectiveness of a museum comes together with the strategies of the consumer society: one has to promote primarily only some items, some symbolic key artifacts of their collection. We dont have highlights, but we should create them! 3.1. Position games of history museums. The History Museum of Estonia (www.eam.ee) and Estonian National Museum (www.erm.ee) are two biggest museums, which represent our national memory. They use different ways presenting it: while Estonian National Museum is concentrated on the ethnographical past of the nation, then History Museum of Estonia is dealing about the history of the state. Their point of view is dissimilar so they are supplementing each other. Now the Museum of Occupations is arising next to them as a defiant competitor, and has also something to say about the same things, which abovementioned giants are already dealing with. Its easier with Estonian National Museum: they are located in separate cities and their scope is different. Although Estonian National Museum has also a part of occupations in the permanent exhibition and some displays, which depict the themes from the recent past, its not a priority and major essence of this museum, but more or less the fashionable theme, which it is pleasant to do business with. Another story is with the History Museum of Estonia (HME). Mutually with a very strong starting point as a main history museum in Estonia it has been fell into stagnancy and is one of the most stoned museums in Estonia, where the changes have been only begun. The problem of the HME lies in three main difficulties: no scope of interest in the museum policy, no attractiveness and creativity in the immense display space and in general it is unclear to whom the museum is targeted. History museum just subsists without asking why it exists. In principle HME should be an attractive museum: its physical position, capacity of collection and the themes of the museum is something what concern mostly everybody in our society. Comparing HME to the Museum of Occupations the latter one has many advantages: it has its communal niche, social need and offering. Museum of Occupations knows exactly what is its point and whom it will target; its emphasizing only some points of the history, and this is its strong point. Museum has all the features, which can make it distinguishable from the ordinary museum scene: important and real theme, original idea, contemporary museum building and financial possibilities for an attractive exposition. The creation of The Museum of Occupation is a big threat for HME, who held until now all the positions about the recent history. Unfortunately HME couldnt benefit of its position and advantages. As a typical massive museum it is very traditional and slow, with no clear point of interest, it gives the help to the smaller and more mobile museums, who can define their content more sharply. After the opening of the Museum of Occupation its pretty clear, that the visitors who are interested in second half of 20th century history will go to this museum. Museum of Occupation could define itself as a center of 20th century occupations. Of course, whether the museum wants to use all of these advantages, which are given to him, this is another question and must be solved by the foundation of the museum. It is also possible to settle as a quiet research center with no public attractions. The character of the museum will be classified according to the year of creation. When the museum would be made earlier, its content and vision would become a completely different one (as it is in Lithuania and Latvia for example). The attitudes and mentality have been changed during the years and its impossible to say if this really is a benefit, that Estonia started so late with this issue. What is also important to remember in the Estonian context is that creation of a new museum affects directly and indirectly also the other museums in this region. Therefore it is imperative to be successful in the museological principles, while after this example people start easily to evaluate the other new / growing / existing museums in Tallinn (esp. the new Art Museum of Estonia) and the museums in Estonia which contain the similar themes. 4. Museum of the Recent Past Occupations in Estonia.There are only few museums in Estonia, which have been established during the last decade most of them are older, founded during 1920-1930ies or during the Soviet time. A new museum has many specific problems, concerned with the establishment and definition of the institution. One of the most important substantial results (and the precondition of the effective museum) must be the integration of the meaning of the institution into the new museum building. Both of them must support each other in form and content, creating the integral unit and energetic center. All the other Estonian museums, (re)created and (re)designed, have been the modifications of already existed institutions or/and buildings. This is principal change. In this case we dont have a former staff or an old building, which one has to make better. In this case the best will be created.The architects of the building (Siiri Vallner and Indrek Peil) have quite clear understanding about the concept of the museum as a total / empty space (See the appendix: museum plans). Latter one is supported by using much glass material - the appearance of the museum reminds a glass box or as an immense aquarium. It is mainly a one-story building, where different functions meet and transform: entrance, temporary exhibitions, permanent display, seminar room, caf and memorial. In the cellar there are the facilities and storages; in the first floor one can find a working space and a library. The main difficulty for the architects is the combination of the exhibition and the objects into this space and the functionality of the whole space scheme. The museum space will be analyzed in the Chapter 7.The building of the Museum of Occupations is the very first museum building ever built in Estonia (!!!). Therefore there is not much previous practice how to co-operate between the architects and the museum-workers. The communication between them is the main precondition arranging the functional, effective and visually nice museum building. One of the main shortcomings of the miscommunication is the separation of the museum building and the museum work, but ideally both of them have to create a museum space a creative space for the collection, employees and visitors. These three groups are equally important, all their needs are evenly inestimable the building will be built for all three of them. Collection is the basis, where one have to start the planning planning of the sentiment and the amount of the museum space. The collection and the theme must co-operate with the architecture and it works - at least on the plans of this museum. The collection itself was actually the secondary material as sources of inspiration, the primary source for planning the museum space were the architects` personal memories of the Soviet past (both direct and indirect recalls). The main concept of the museum architecture was the fluctuation of time, uncertainty and ambiguity of the past the space is solved as a one big area, where things can move and change their meanings and emphasizes. The architectural space gives the hint to understand the past its always partly visible (external glass walls), it reflects into our everyday life (shadows of the trees towards the street), and it is not stagnated in defined spaces (one big room for everything). The objects presented inside are in this case kind of co-products, which help to defend the idea of the building. Visitors are the second criteria the museum is not a closed space, which has been created only for the collection storage and the storage keepers but the main principle is to act as a mediator of a past and the people who are living nowadays. Besides the collection and the visitors it is important to produce the creative space for the employees of the museum. The aim of the museum is to serve as much as possible of the needs of the different target groups, but the prerequisite for this is the wide intellectual and technical stand of the well-motivated employees. The contemporary museum can exist only with a co-operation of an appropriate professional teamwork. Those who build and work in museums are not only paid employees, but also the institutions most constant users and critics. These people give the face of the museum. Only through these people the museum seems to be and is an alive one. While at the moment the museum doesnt have a completed team, one of the most important jobs is to mark the inner structure of the institution and to find these potential museum employees. These people should have an active role in planning of the museum, especially the permanent exhibitions and communicative programs. Also the main principles of the visitor-friendliness and exhibition policy must be established as soon as possible. A museum consists of a mix of at least five basic elements: museum setting itself; objects, collections, exhibitions; interpretative materials; museum programs and museum services. Every working museum will be charged according to these five different angles. Following analysis and the proposals for the museum is based on the research of six areas, which are important developing the museum (visitor and market analysis, collection analysis, public programs evaluation, institutional context, institutional plan), which leads us to the needs of the museum staff, space and facilities and later to these five basic elements of every museum. The structure of the policy of the Museum of Occupations is the following:A Corporate plan (mission, mandate, objectives) Chapter 5.A Feasibility study (collection management, development strategy, public programming plan, market analysis and marketing strategy, security, financial planning) Chapter 6.A Functional brief (a statement of the museums functional requirements for space and facilities) Chapter 7. 5. A Corporate plan. 5.1. Idea of the museum. The purpose of this thesis is not to talk about the content of the museum, but understanding the idea of a museum one has to have a brief overview about Estonian history. From this point some very important questions are arising, which are connected to the overall policy of the museum. Living under the occupation, the everyday life was divided into two parts: official one (co-operation with the Soviet system) and hidden one (confrontation to the Soviet system). In many matters they were mixed with each other, and assimilated. Museum must show the both sides in balanced proportions. What kind of questions the museum can ask? Does the museum want to be personal? To have a revenge? To define the enemies of the Estonian nation? To show the outputs of this society? To specify the uniqueness of the culture production during the occupation?The most important fact of the museum is, that the museum doesnt let to forget. Especially the genocide of Estonian nation in 1941 and 1949. Remembering is our duty not only in face of the people, who suffered, but also in front of the future generations. To remembrance also the memorial will be created. The task of the museum is to diminish the ignorance about the past. The aim is not just to reflect, but also to generate the understanding. One of the preconditions of this museum is to be neutral and objective as possible. This building is not a right place for the battle; it should be just an indeterminate place for looking backwards - both to the positive and negative side, funny and tragical face of the past. In principle it doesnt matter, how the museum defines its role, how neutral it wants to be, the creation of this kind of museum in one or another form is revenge and a judgment. Our judgment towards the past. Explaining the reasons and the results of the curves of history, but primarily showing the life in these years in its small details, is one of the main aims of this museum. History is in the details. In the same time the objected details must form a narrative. Their value [] is based above all on their status within a system of meanings. Therefore it is a object-centered museum, where the objects are not demoted from realia to media yet, as a degradation from intrinsic to instrumental value. In this point this is a commendable traditional museum. Its a very alive museum, because the museum is talking about the recent events and offering visitors real people and real places as well as real things. Just the late past, the story of our families. Audience orientation is communitarian and concentrated on the user needs. Liveliness reflects also in the large use of memories of the contemporaries of these historical events. Only history plus memory equals good history. Also it is necessary to use different mediums to present the mentality of the people. Music and visual material tell usually lot more than the words. Exhibitions dont tell, they show. Therefore a lot of original objects, film-material (both documentaries and motion pictures), music, photos and other picture material will be presented. The Museum of Occupations is an open-minded institution, not a one-sided memorializing museum, which is concentrated only on the terrifying past of Estonia. The memorial and some parts of the permanent display have this attitude, but the general look of the museum is not the horrifying one. Instead of a sacred and an immune attitude one finds the contemporary, multilogue and dynamic approach, where one can find various sides of the life under the occupation. As one could read in the Chapter 2.5. the development of this kind of memorial museums have been transformed due to the countries and representation traditions they hold different faces and attitudes symbolizing the theme. The Museum of Occupations will have a look of the outsiders its a presentation of some details of the Soviet life, some hints to the time values, but it is not an internal and personal view inside some re-created hyperreal space. Although the museum includes many personal memories, the overall presentation is general and non-personal the subject of the museum is the nation and the country as a whole. At last, but not at least the museum cannot encyst only into its own minor matters, but has to offer the general understanding about the humanistic world view to the visitors, who find themselves positioned between two poles: between the concrete and the abstract, the historical and the metaphoric, the unique and the universal. 5.2. Themes of the museum.The general theme of the museum is THE LIFE UNDER THE OCCUPATIONS IN ESTONIA BETWEEN 1940 1991. As has Hilde S. Hein mentioned in her book that historical scholarship has [] been touched by museum practice, notably in the area of the new social history, whose evidence is drawn more from material artifacts left behind by the people who lived in the history than from chronicles and literary remains. This means, that the people themselves, their belongings and surroundings should sound in this museum. This is the story of people, not the written history from the chronicle book. While the time period of the museum includes also the occupations during the World War II, the museum presents also the events of this war and the Russian and German Occupation of Estonia during 1940 1945. The basic statement is SURVIVAL DURING THE WAR. Survival includes both the personal and governmental level - survival of Estonian people and the Republic of Estonia.Both physical and mental survival and life were connected and twisted with each other during all the years of occupation. One cant look one without the other. Therefore the problem how was possible to survive and which were the conditions of this survival, is one of the basic questions of the museum. Basis of the museological concept of this museum is the thought and faith of the ordinary people and their environment in the Soviet Estonia. Human centered attitude is the important key-word of the whole museum. The conceptual reason choosing the human approach rests in the extreme system-centerness in the Soviet structures, the museological reason lies in the contemporary trend of the closeness and understandability to the possibly broad public. This approach will be discussed in four main theme-blocks: The ideology and the values which were constrained by the new society and which must be kept by the people. The conflict against these criterions. (Politics, ideological principles, economy, agriculture, fight for independence).The institutions, which governed the Soviet system (both in Moscow and in Estonia).The repressions of the people (direct and indirect repressions).The life standard of the Soviet society (everyday life, sport, culture). These themes are more or less combined with each other, so the public gets only a mixture of it. The basic statement can be one of the followings: LIFE IN SOVIET ESTONIA LIFE UNDER THE OCCUPATIONS - personal and individualor50 YEARS OF OCCUPATION - impersonal and official This statement can be used also for the slogan of the museum (please read closer in the Chapter 6.5.7.)IDEOLOGY  VALUES LIFE STANDARDSINSTITUTIONS REPRESSIONSThe permanent exhibition is divided into the chronological blocks, so next to every decade it is possible to have a short overview about the various changes in the society (Chapter 6.5.3.). Besides the permanent and temporary exhibitions there is also one essential part of the museum A MEMORIAL. Memorial is the landmark for all the people, who suffered during the occupations. Therefore the memorial might have a separate statement: REMEMBER AND MEMORIALIZE (in Estonian: mleta ja mlesta).5.3. Goals.The goals of the Museum of Occupations are the following:To give the clear, lucid, objective and complete overview about the recent occupations in Estonia (1940 1991) through the authentic materials and high-tech technologies. Museum must be understandable to all different community groups of Estonia, but also to the foreigners of this society.To offer such kind of an emotional space and materials, which doesnt let to forget the incidents of Estonian past. This understanding about the past forms the basement of contemporary and future democratic society and its human based rules. To give the opportunity to study the subject matter in a more profound way, using the materials of the museum (database, documents, archive materials, objects, photos, recorded memories of the people). To present the recent past of Estonia in a neutral and objective way. To follow the principle of the glance of the outsider.To present the Estonian history as wide scale as possible, portraying various areas of the life (politics, economics, culture etc). To provide integrated and interpreted information about this certain period.To follow the principle of interdisciplinarity different aspects of one period can meet inside one space.To present variety of opinions. To introduce the diversity of the cultures and traditions in Estonia and co-operation with other Soviet republics.To concentrate on the humans and to the human centered approach. The memories of the people, who lived in this period, are the most precious treasure of the museum. To concentrate on preservation of intangible heritage. To arrange the balance between the inside looking (research, preservation) and outside looking (public programs) approach. To gain a special place among the other history museums through the exhibition politics and the communication program.To present a unique museum visit, which can be remembered. 5.4. Mission statement. The mission of the Museum of the Recent Past Occupations of Estonia is to preserve, research and present in the interdisciplinary manner the ideology and quality of life of the individuals and the state of Estonia during the occupation years in 1940 - 1991. Mission statement in short version: LIFE UNDER THE OCCUPATIONS.5.5. Strategies.The main problem of all the museums is that they are too similar. Although their main purposes are the same, the content and the methods how to reach the public should be quite different inside the various museum types. Museum strategy is the assignment, which defines the uniqueness of this particular museum. Strategy is the clear and understandable base for further action and development. The strategies of the Museum of Occupations are based on the three main prerequisites:New and not presented material about Estonian recent history.Attractive and contemporary museum design.Museum room as a polyfunctional space.These three statements are also the main differences from the other museums in Estonia. These differences might change during the years then the museum should change also its strategies. - The main key word of the museum strategy is integration integration of different functions into one room and mixture of theses different roles. The traditional museum is solved as an assemblage of small separated and clearly defined spaces, in the Museum of Occupations the traditional idea has been turned around. The basis for this idea is the architecture; hopefully the display, library, caf, storerooms, resting space and secondary services supports the idea. Also the research themes support this idea there is possible to research everything which is connected with the certain time period. The need for the information about the recent past has been immense during the last ten years. In the beginning the concentration was in the war and deportation lists, later the emphasis turned towards the Soviet everyday life and politics. The Museum of Occupations should be the most important center of the polyfunctional research and presentation of the second half of 20th century Estonian history. Clear positioning of the museum experience. Museum of Occupations definesitself in terms of some clear and attractive feature or attribute, so called attribute positioning - the states only museum which deals with 20th century occupations. Museum provides the contemplative environment, together with varied learning understandings, mixing mutually the emotional and intellectual experiences. Museum turns special attention to the service, personnel and technological differentiation, while the satisfying the museum visitor is the main aims of the institution. Emphasis on the space moods. The arrangement of the different type of spacesinside the museum building is one of most important features of this type of institution. This practically unnoticed combination helps the visitor to move, feel, act, as the museum wants to. This overall path, a combination of the space together with the object setting presents the museum mission most clearly. The space strategy of the Museum of Occupations has been well planned - the visitor can feel quite different emotions, which are following each other. Besides the collection the space strategy is closely linked to the height of the room - the dimensions of the floor and the ceiling are changing all the time. Contemplative zone Entrance through the memorial. If possible, then possibility to sit / to stand in silence and to think about the past and people, who have been died cause to the occupations. In every matter a nice symbol of continuity. Communication zone Meeting point. Space for the temporary exhibitions. Place for active thinking, discussions and dialogues with the exhibitions and exhibits.Information zone Informative permanent exhibition gives the overview about the recent past of Estonian history. Energy zone Stairs that are open towards the exhibition space (also possible to use as a closed seminar room). Possible to sit and watch / read / search in the computer program about Estonian recent history. Collecting the memories, emotions and energy. Relax zone Museum caf. Museum fatigue is one of the most common diseases in the museums. A perfect view to the city, to the memorial and partly to the exhibition.1. CONTEMPLATIVE ZONE2. COMMUNICATION ZONE3. INFORMATION ZONE4. ENERGY ZONE5. RELAX ZONEAlso the openness of the museum has its visual image in the architecture (motion inthe glass box). The openness should reflect in the work of museum, open hours, possibility to use the library, the helpful people working in the museum, possibility to feel free and open-minded as a visitor. Visitor-friendly and communicative atmosphere supports the idea of the museum as a creative place. Openness reflects also in the possibility to use all materials of the museum, also the view to the open storage and possibility to touch / feel the old artifacts or copies of them (hands-on material). Clear marketing. The museum should have a clear, systematic and integralmarketing strategy, which makes this museum visually and essentially special. Marketing strategy should reflect the main ideas of the museum in a simple and attractive way and motivate the visitor to return. Museum doesnt play only with its artifacts, its playing also with its image. The overall image of the museums is not very high in Estonia, but the marketing strategy helps to visualize and explain the content, services and activities of this museum in an understandable way for the public. One part of the marketing strategy is keeping the memory. It is important to create some details, facts and elements of interior design that are worth of remembering (i.e. a memorial). Also it is good to give something, what is possible to keep also after the visit as well besides this is one reason, why the museum shop industry has been grown. Therefore it is important to think about the small and in the content of the museum unimportant details, which might change the visit into memorable one (for example: the ticket, the plan of the museum, the food in the caf, the toilets, the elevator, the souvenirs of the museum etc). 5.6. Target groups. As one can see from the Chapter 3 the Museum of Occupations has a very unique role to play in the context of Estonian museums. The main target groups of this specific museum should be known before the creation of the overall museum concept. There should be no difference in the importance of the visitors` classes and prominences but creation of the effective institution needs the information about its potential public and segmentation of the possible market. The potential market for this museum is large. This museum is unique in the content and modern in the design. The interest about the recent past becomes more and more an actual theme in the history studies, in the newspaper stories, in the discussions of the Parliament. The need for this kind of museum becomes in time more and more absolute, including the schoolchildren, families, retired people and internal and external tourists. The visit of each target group is different in their essence, they are looking for the dissimilar things, emotions, materials and the satisfaction of all the target groups is practically impossible. One should try at least. The contentment of the visitors is based particularly on the high-quality combination of the content and attractiveness of the exhibition policy (Chapter 6.5.4.). Main target groups of the Museum of Occupations by age, personal and social status*:  children schoolchildren internal tourists students adults  retired people  external tourists families researchers* While the museum isnt open yet, therefore one can talk about potential target groups. Main target groups by the institutional level:  schoolsworking collectives tourist groupsuniversities, research centers, other museumsThe following table speaks about the main partners of the museums, which partly can be also the target groups, but their main importance is in financial and constitutive co-operation with the museum. It is substantial to keep active contacts with abovementioned groups; otherwise the museum doesnt survive either in essence or financially. Main partners of the museum:Financial partners Essential partnersFoundations, funds Research institutesPrivate investors  Educational instit.- sGovernmental institutions  People, who give their mental or physical heritage into the museumJournalistsWho are the potential visitors of the museum? Most visitors visit this museum only once and they come because of their personal interest. Therefore the museum must think to the three problems:How to make remember the visit if the visitor comes only once?How to make remember the visit if the visitor comes several times?How to make the involuntary visit a pleasant / remembering one?researchers Want to come internal touristsstudents external touristsadults / families retired people retired people adults / families Repeated visits Unique visitschoolchildren childrenfamilies external tourists (tourist groups) Have to comeThere are many specific needs and interests concerned with every single target group. Creating the concept of the museum also the geographical, cultural, ethnic, social class, life cycle, life style, socialization, social trend factors and mental distinctions are important to remember. Research has shown that different types of visitors focus on different kinds of experiences and that most museum visitors are seeking a range of experiences. Neil and Philip Kotler propose six types of museum-going experiences: recreation, sociability, learning experience, aesthetic experience, celebrative experience and enchanting experience. Museum should drive to offer an array of experiences to their visitors to ensure enriching and satisfying visits. Museum should analyze firstly the expectations of the visitors and therefore concentrate on two or three main experience types, which are most important exactly to this museum. Sociability and learning experience might be the most valuable purposes in the case of this museum. Main target groups by age and personal status(children, schoolchildren, students, adults, researchers, retired people, families):Children come usually together their parents and they dont have any special contact or interest in this theme. There should be some attractions dedicated to the children (and not only to them) in the museum for example Estonian cartoons from the Soviet time. Also there can be some details (i.e. toys), which can start a discussion between the (grand)parent and the child.Schoolchildren must come to the museum because of their school studies. Usually they dont have any special interest to this time, but the museum should arise that interest through attractive themes, techniques and facilities (cartoons, Estonian movies from the Soviet times, objects from everyday life which can be touched etc). Effective way bringing them into this theme is giving some special tasks and exercises in the museum space. Students might have a special interest to this theme. There is possible to study / make a research in the museum. They need very diversified material depends on their interest or study theme. Adults, usually working / studying people, is the most difficult target group although most of the museums are meant for them, it is actually very difficult to catch them into museums (if they are not coming with families). The strong point of this museum is that the presented theme is THEIR time their childhood, youth or grown-up period. Also the museum has many contacts with time of their family: with their parents and grandparents. Present adults can feel, that they were part of this story the personal recognition, individual or family memories make this museum lively organism. In the museum they are looking for something personal, connected with their life experiences (repressions, life in the collecting farm, EE etc). Younger adults might have a nostalgic view towards the Soviet time. Emphasis on the documentaries, Soviet-time movies, cartoons, photos and original objects. Researchers (also lecturers, professors) are people, who are more or less working with this theme and who want to get more specific and detailed information, expertise etc. Retired people. Their generation has been suffered mostly and they are coming here to see their personal memories about the past. The important part of the exhibition talks about the years of the war and Stalinist repressions, also the repressions during the whole Soviet time, but furthermore the everyday life. Emphasis on original objects, documentaries and on the documented memories of other peers. Families are one of the main visitor groups in the museum in general. This means, that the museum has to offer something attractive to different age groups (children with their parents/grandparents) in the same time and to encourage a discussion between them. Emphasis on the original objects, things that could be touched, simple tables, statements (sentences), questions and big photos. Main target groups by social status:(schoolchildren, adults, retired people, families, internal tourists, external tourists):Visitors come usually in smaller groups (2 5 persons), especially schoolchildren, families and tourists (many of them come in groups as well, see below). Small groups have their own inner circle, where they are communicating, usually only with each other, sharing the emotions. Small groups need something to grab, to get attention for it should be a simple and visible attraction, which can enjoy together or something that can be shown to the others. Important is the interaction between the group or/and the object. Visitor, who comes alone, wants to go into the theme and to concentrate. He might need a person or material, from where he can find the answers. While he hasnt anybody to talk with, he has to interact only with the object / text. Therefore the text must be communicative and raise some questions, problems, which are solvable by the visitor. In general, visitors who come alone need more material and place to stay (benches, film corners, texts etc).Internal tourists are usually very interested (you never know, when you can come in the next time) and want to get profound information. Usually they have already some previous knowledge from their home district, and they are able to compare different material, sources and stories. External tourists are interested as well, but to them the simple form information and schemes are needed. Most important is to give them the main ideas of the museum (tables, photos, documentaries). This target group is one of the most difficult one, because usually they dont have any previous (or little) knowledge about the Estonian history; in the same time they are most promising unit because of the grow of the cultural tourism in the world. Main target groups by the institutional level(schools, working collectives, universities, research institutions, museums, tourist groups):Schools, working collectives and tourist groups, which come by bodies (20 40 persons per a group) have similar attitudes and behavior. They are listening the guide and get most of the information from her/him. The whole exhibition is an illustration of the talk show of the guide. The themes, although, must be different - according to the level of interest and knowledge. Therefore the museum should be able to offer the guided tours in different level and areas (interns, educational officer, curator). The groups are staying in the museum quite long time (approximately 1 hour), because museum offers besides the tour also other facilities: toilets, a museum shop and a caf. Co-operation between the museum and other research institutes, universities and museums is extremely important, because the research about the Soviet occupation in Estonia is and will be the most significant part of the museum work. The museum provides the working space and extra financing for the researchers of this topic. Main target groupsIn the beginning of creation of the museum the main target groups are the schoolchildren / schools, the researchers and the external tourists, but stage by stage the museum will work more with all abovementioned target groups. The main target groups are selected because:Schoolchildren, who are learning Estonian history, dont have visible and object-based material about the Soviet past. Researchers have to study the subject as deep as possible and as soon as possible the generations of this period are still alive. Museum supports the study of the period 1940-1991 irrespective of he/she is a student, lecturer or an historian and provides the material about the subject matter and a working space. External tourists have usually unjust or incomplete view about the past 60 years in Estonia and there is no place to have a clear and tempered vision about that. These blunders must be changed as quickly as possible. Therefore the main emphasis has turned to the invention of the materials (worksheets, questionnaires, talk shows, history lessons, booklets) for the schoolchildren and for the tourists. 6. Feasibility study. 6.1. Structure and services. A contemporary museum is a service-based institution. Museum offers a service for a public. Before going to the analysis of the inner structure of the museum, one has to mark the main services and their connection with the museum. The services of a museum might be as emotional (display, interpretation, food) as informational (research, documentation); the ideal is the balanced combination of these two possibilities. Primary services Secondary services Collecting Catering Documentation Museum shop Preservation Restrooms / facilitiesResearch Space rentalDisplay Equipment rentalInterpretation6.2. Inner structure of the institution.While the museum itself isnt a very big museum, therefore also the number of staff must be rationally balanced. Most contemporary arranged museums have a management structure that includes at least three cross-divisional components curation, operations and administration - one concerned with the museums assets, another with activities, and the third with the administration of the other two. Therefore the minimum amount of workers in the museum might be three people. In the case a functioning museum the number of employees must be bigger. Although this is a quite fashionable museum structure, its still a hierarchical one. In the case of this small museum the hierarchy isnt a drawback, while all the members of the museum crew are equally thrown into the museum matters. In contrary, in the little museums there is even more important to divide the duties according to the specifics of the work, that the museum employees cant constantly do everything like it is typical in the smaller museums. Whatever is the organization, the museum has to manage the institution and take care of its employees according to the personnel and customers satisfaction oriented theories of Elton W. Mayo and Tom Peters. The following is the proposed structure of the museum, considering that the work is intensive and highly qualified in different areas (research, preservation, communication). The total amount of the employees might be the smaller one, but all the mentioned working areas must be completed.  P.S. If necessary, one can incorporate two different jobs into one (for example the curator and the librarian; the director and the public relations officer).Direction(board, director):Museum board. As a mode of governance the Museum of Occupations is the non-profitmaking organization. Although the museum is based on the money of one person (Mrs. Kistler-Ritso), she decided to create the foundation for origination of the museum and belongs herself only to the Council of the Fond. The Fond of Kistler-Ritso finances the Foundation of Kistler-Ritso what is responsible of building the museum. Foundation is governed by the board. The foundation will be also the governing body (not only advisory body) of the museum. Board has the decisive role in the planning of the museum work. Whatever is specific form or size, the board collectively assumes legal and financial responsibility for the museum []. The board of Kistler-Ritso Foundation has the following responsibilities:To ensure the continuity of the museums` mission and purposes. To lead the effectiveness of the museum work (public services, communication and research projects, preservation and collecting problems). To approve the museum year plan, both essential and financial side of it. To regulate and approve the changes in the policy or major activities. To plan the future of the museum and to monitor that plan. To recruit and control the labor of the director. To assure the financial stability of the museum and search for additional financial sources. To control the budget and financial reports. Board meets systematically (for example once a month). While the museum itself isnt a big one, the board of the museum can be quite small one seven trustees: five from the current board of Kistler-Ritso Foundation and two from the museum field. It is important that board includes also people who can see the organization from outside . The new members will be elected according to the constitution of the foundation. While the board is so small, there is no use to create board committees, but it is normal, that inner division of the board will exist according to the interests and possibilities. The director of the museum is usually an ex officio member of the board. - Director. The director or chief executives role includes planning, policy formulation, approving procedures and developing and maintaining relations with other institutions. Most of these management functions are shared with board of trustees. The director must be the conscious of the museum. He must be the conceptual leader (a curator) but also financial manager and funding promoter, he has to deal every-day planning, organizing and staffing of the institution.Administration(personnel, finance, development, security, visitor services, maintenance, museum shop):The director and elected members of the board will hire personnel in accordance to the public contest. Personnel will be restrained by the director.- Finance of the museum will be managed by the bookkeeper and controlled by the board. The board and the director, who has the responsibility to keep the expenses and incomings in the balance, will govern the system of finance the museum. - Security system will be contracted out. One has to pay attention, that the lowest bidder for a security contract may be the most dangerous for a museum, because low-bid security contracts often result in poorly paid, ill trained and indifferently motivated guards. Security together with visitor services provide the most visible face about the attitudes of the museum and therefore are they one of the most important sections of the museum structure. Security system in the exhibition halls will be electronical, with control-board in the security room/corner or in the security center. In the beginning, when the number of visitors is high, there might be also additional security guards in the exhibition space. Besides the electronical system there might be also always one person as a guide-security in the exhibition sector. This volunteer / student / intern has to keep the eyes to the objects; also he must give some extra information about the museum and history of Estonia. - Cleaning (maintenance) of the museum space will be contracted out. - Visitor services employee in the cloakroom and reception (ticket sales) will be hired in accordance to the public contest by the director. It is necessary to have two persons on this place (i.e. and place), because this person must be in his place all the time, so there has to be a possibility to change him according to the needs (i.e. illness, vacation etc). When he is working from 10 18, he should have a lunch break during the day and during this time somebody of the crew must replace him. The other possibility is to work in half days then after 4 hours they have also opportunity to go to the toilet and have a lunch as well. - Museum shop is one most important component of the contemporary museum. Retail sales clerk might be the same person, who sells the tickets or a separate employee of the museum; also the whole museum shop can be the branch of some bigger bookshop or an independent business. - Catering/Caf space will be contracted out. The main condition is, that the idea of the caf must suit with the concept of the museum. Curation(research, conservation, documentation):- Curators are dealing with the research of the main topics of the museum (period 1940-1991). They are financed by long-term scholarships. On the scheme there are two curators, but the number of the curators might change according to the available scholarships and the new research projects. - Conservation of the collection, more precisely the preventive conservation, will be maintained by the collection manager of the museum. Therefore there is no conservator in the museum. The more complex conservation / restoration works will be ordered by the local restoration firms. - Documentation, as written as photographed, will be held by the collection manager. Documentation includes new acquisitions and also already acquired collection, while the collection is at least at the moment not completely documented and systematized; also the co-ordination of photos and digitalized materials into the documentation system. Her/his responsibility is also continuing supervision, cataloguing and storing the collection, co-ordination of all aspects of borrowing and lending the objects, insurances, integration of collection database with the national museum database network, maintaining the collection in the Internet and provision of catalogue information on the collection to print or other media. At least in the beginning the work of the collection manager is one of the most significant ones. Operations(exhibitions, design, education, publications, library, marketing):- Exhibition and educational manager should be responsible for the exhibition program and timing, exhibit design, graphic design, film programs (coordination of the projects) and education programs. Also he produces most of the educational programs (together with curators and volunteers / history students / interns) and coordinates the events, conferences or other projects connected with a museum. - Librarian / archivist is an employee, who works in the library controlling, collecting and preserving the books which are connected to the museums` subject and maintaining the archive of the museum. Also he is the person, who deals in everyday base with the students and researches, who have specific questions and problems, want to have an expertise etc. - Marketing and public relations manager, publication manager deals with everything, what goes outside, she/he is the main person who communicates between the museum and the society. In addition of the everyday promotion work she/he has the responsibility about all the printed materials, booklets, posters, publications and the maintenance of the web-site. Public relation manager has also a duty to organize systematically visitor studies about the public visiting the museum. - Technician is the person who is responsible of all technical maintenance and problems of the building. Also he has to be able to serve as a technical assistant during the execution of the exhibitions. During the (dis)mantling the temporary exhibitions the extra technicians will be needed. - Volunteers. The tradition of volunteers in the museums in Estonia is not rooted yet, there are only few museums, where one can find them. Therefore also the board of the museum as a volunteer structure is not common yet. For any bigger museum the volunteers or low paid stuff are highly needed, especially for implementation of the guided tours and educational programs, but also as library assistants, data entry clerks or other people, who are communicating with visitors. The main needs, why volunteers are working in the museum, are individual development and social recognition. Museum should patronize these factors to promote and keep the volunteers in the museum. The Museum of Occupations should encourage the students (especially the students of history as the interns and volunteers) to work in the museum space. The work might be seasonal or only during the weekends and it can be various one, staring with hosting work in the entrance and ending with technical help hanging the temporary exhibitions. Using the young people in the museum space helps to create a positive and powerful image of the museum. According to this description of the responsibilities the minimum of the museums staff is the following:Contracted out Museum paid employeesBook keepingDirectorSecuritySecretary (+ marketing & public relations manager, publications manager)MaintenanceVisitor service officerCafeCuratorCurator & librarian / archivistCollection managerExhibitions & Education managerTechnician6.3. Collection management.Collection is the core of the museum. Therefore the management of the collection should be an essential activity of the museum to ensure the accountability and security of the objects. The museum started with the collecting after the creation of the institution, in the end of 1990s actually too late. A huge wave of the western ideology and commodity had blown most of the Soviettime things, interiors and memories into the eternity. At the moment museum collection includes more than 11 000 items connected with the theme of the museum. The collecting strategy has been very vague and non-selective: through the donations, findings, bequests and acquisitions. Therefore one can find from the collection very large selection of different kind of material. Starting so late this principle was a right one, at least for the beginning, when the museum didnt have a proper collection policy. One can still find the material and information here and there, which has to be collected as quickly as possible. This period should be the most active and enforcing time for collecting, because after the couple of years it would be very difficult to gather anything connected with Soviet years. Especially it is connected with the peoples memories traditions and remembrances are heritage, which is difficult to find and preserve. The collection includes very different kind of material; therefore also the various preservation conditions are needed. Three separate storage rooms (together 160 m2) should solve the problem, there is possible to isolate diversified type of materials and provide suitable conditions for each type (i.e. film, photos and videos; paper and textiles, wood and canvas; metal, stone and ceramics). The other problem is the space problem. Although at the moment the storages are suitable for the collection, in couple of years after the active collecting policy they might to remain too small ones. 6.3.1. Collection policy. Collection policy is the core of the collection management, which reflects the museums` collecting, documentation and preservation politics. The following is the basis for the creation of the collection policy. Later the collection policy can be divided into three separate policies: the collection policy, information policy and conservation policy. Museum collects, maintains and protects the tangible and intangible material of the life of Estonian people and state, which is connected with the period of WW II and Soviet occupation, between the years 1940 1991. The matter should be related with the ideology, values, institutions, repressions and life standards of this time period. Although the collection is the belonging of the foundation, it is open to all people, who have interest to research the topic of the museum. The objective of the collection is to collect the typical and representative examples of objects and products, which has been produced in Estonia during the Soviet occupation by local factories and used by local people. The collection should become a systematic set of a Soviet Estonians` lifestyle and -standards. A special interest of the museum is to collect the unique objects, which have been made during the war or in the deportation camps. For simplification and for the educative purposes the museum has various types of collections: the objects might be collected to the display collection, study collection or to the reserve collection. The criterion for inclusion in the collection depends on the mission of the museum, the physical size of the museum building and approved provenance and authenticity of the object. Acquisition methods might include gifts, bequests, donations, purchases, fieldwork or deposits from the other private collectors, donators, museums or institutions.Museum can de-accession the artifact when it doesnt fit to the museum policy, when it has been acquired unethically, when it is a bad duplicate compared to the others in the collection or when the object is not worth to restore. The museum decides about the de-accessioning of the artifacts separately by each item. The museum will lend the objects of its collection only to the institutions, which provide the security and protection of the artifacts during the travel and display time.Museum will work out the collection development policy, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Museum provides the conditions for preventive conservation and security of the collection in the storage and in the display both in the museum building and in the traveling exhibitions (temperature, relative humidity, air filtration, light, pests, handling, technical and physical security). Museum space should include the conservation room, where is possible to make simpler / routine conservation procedures and prepare the objects for display or loans. All the procedures carried out both inside and outside the museum space (restoration studio), must be fully documented. Museum has an automated documentation system, which includes all the objects of the collection. The system will be maintained and improved regularly by the collection manager of the museum. He provides the all-necessary information, which is connected with the collection, to the wider public and to the other specialists according to the needs. The full documentation of the collection is available in the museum, partly also in the web-site of the museum. After the closing the museum, the museum guarantees the care of the collection by giving it to the state history museum. 6.4. Scientific work.As it has been mentioned already before, the scientific work is substantial part of this museum, while only ten years ago the objective research about the topic could start. The precondition of the systematic analyze is the creation of suitable circumstances for the scientific study silence, space and materials but also the research policy and plan for all the museum employees. At the moment there are planned two curators (researchers) working in the museum, the other research plans will be worked out as independent projects on certain issue and will be financed separately. An active research has two strengths in the point of view of the museum: it keeps the image of the museum as a serious scientific institution and it helps to create new temporary exhibitions. An overview about the main research topics is in the museums web-site and probably the area of the possible research themes will become wider in some years. Together with the creation with the museum it is important to re-evaluate the current research themes and to compare them with the exhibition plans for the next five years. The proper research is the basis for the successful exhibition - therefore the exhibition plan and the research themes should move into one direction. In a certain manner the curators might also think, in what themes the visitors are interested? Does it agree with the wishes / interests of themselves and what can be improved for the betterment of the museum? Printed materials: It is necessary to produce the materials, which are connected with the content of the permanent exhibition and the idea of the museum (More detailed information about the marketing publications please find in the Chapter 6.5.8.). These themes are more vague and general than the specific research subjects, but they are extremely necessary, while they are completely missing at the moment. It is essential to have some popular and explicit treatments about the Soviet times in Estonia, about the deportations of Estonians in the 20th century and about the time of WW II. Such kind of book together with lots of illustrations will be a kind of paper-based exhibition about the Estonian history, which is possible to keep also after the museum visit. Together with similar level of the content and the design they constitute an excellent and readable serial about Estonian history both to the locals and to the tourists. Next to these theme books it is natural to have a guidebook of the museum, where the whole exhibition has been presented and which gives the main principles and ideas of these 50 years. The other scientific material and catalogues will be created together with new temporary exhibitions or some major conferences. The annual museum journals present the current research results. Issue can include also the material outside the museum the precondition is the certain topic and the year limits. Catalogue / album of the collection doesnt suit to the first years plans, but after the cataloguing and systemizing the collection it can be an interesting item to work with. In principle the people are already working with this publication. Computer-based materials: As important as the books and catalogues are the databases of the subject matter. The work with the list of the deported people began already years ago. At the moment the museum works with the computerization of the whole collection. Huge amount of the material in the permanent exhibition will be computer-based: lists, information, stories, interpretation, photos etc. The material should be simple, clear and comprehensive together with a possibility to go further, to search more closely about some certain topic. One of the biggest works creating the permanent exhibition will be the creation of this database about certain time periods of the recent history of Estonia. This material can be retailed also in the form of CD-ROM. Also it is important to improve the web-site of the museum and change it more attractive and museum-oriented. Betterment of the web-site is valuable precondition of the functioning museum, while in the web-site one should find everything important connected to the museum (information about the access and about the collection, history of Estonia, additional materials, museum building, photo material, activities, museum highlights, new acquisitions etc).6.5. Public programs. Public programs are the most important factors keeping the institution a lively organization. Speaking about exhibitions or the educational programs two qualities characterize the successful management of public programs: visitor-responsiveness and creativity. Both factors are important also in this museum. Although this isnt a happy and festive museum, one has to co-operate and think together with a museum about the events in the recent past. Because the recentness of the theme the responsiveness of the visitors should be quite easy one the museum should be a place of a dialogue. Communication programs have been divided into seven parts: educational programs, exhibitions, orientation, outreach programs, visitor services, visitor research and marketing. Publications as a considerable part of the public projects have been divided between the themes of scientific work and marketing. 6.5.1. Educational programs.Thought never absent from the museum world, didactiticism is now more central to it than ever. The common principle of the current museum education program must be the emotional involvement of different target groups and supporting the informal and learner-centered education, self-directed and life-long learning. Also the exhibition policy should sustain this idea. The museum needs a separate education policy to declare and define its main target groups and goals what they want to achieve. Also it should include the plan of the activities and possibilities for evaluation of the programs. The following explains the selection and some activities of the target groups.Remembering the idea, that the museums work best as informal educational institutions and that the most effective learning method is an affective one, the communication programs of the Museum of Occupations are based on interactivity, relations with contemporary life, hands-on approach and creativity. While the Museum of Occupations is a very young institution, the main emphasis of the educational programs in the first two years will be turned towards the main target groups: I to the schoolchildren, II to the researchers and III to the foreign tourists. I Although the museums main target group are the young people, the institution doesnt have a separate room for class-meetings, discussions and small study-film programs so called study center for the schoolchildren, with all necessary equipment. Hopefully the museum can organize this space; otherwise the majority of the communication programs cannot be arranged. A selection of possibilities of education programs to the schoolchildren:A history lesson about one topic in a museum with real objects connected with this theme.Film programs about the Estonian history together with explanations (using tables, blackboard, additional material). Film programs about the European 20th century history (WW II, politics after the WW II, Cold War; a selection according to the study program). WW II as a play of force and strategy. (Children will be divided into parts (Russia, UK, France, USA, Germany, Italy, Japan) and with help of the schemes and tables they describe their methods and strategies, strengths and weaknesses and analyze the reasons, why they won or lost the war.)Working in small groups on some certain theme in the museum, which concludes with a discussion with a specialist (i.e. agriculture or culture in Soviet Estonia, comparison with contemporary Estonia). Creation of a memorial. (Description of the meaning of the memorials, overview of the memorials in Tallinn and about the memorial in the Museum of Occupation. After that children in small groups must create their own memorial to some certain place in Estonia and must be able to describe and to prove the idea). Worksheets / questionnaires, based on the permanent exhibition.Guided tour.All these programs can be held in the museum, using the materials of the museum, but with their own schoolteacher. All the teachers will have a training program by the museum before the beginning of the program. According to the need and want also the museum curator, intern / volunteer or another specialist can be employed.Supporting the visit of the schoolchild together with his/her parents, the museum gives a free museum passport to every schoolchild, who visited the museum firstly together with his class and who can come back concurrently with his parents or other relatives. II The museum offers to the researchers the space and the data for study. Besides this the museum organizes also the conferences on some certain issues and provides publishing possibility in the museum publications.III Many outer tourists are interested besides the medieval Tallinn also about our recent past. Foreign tourists should be one of the most important target groups especially because of the enlightenment reasons still many tourists who are coming to Estonia, dont have a clear idea, what happened to Estonia after the WW II and how actually the Soviet life looked like. Therefore the clear and simple permanent exhibition is especially important. In the other side tourists are likely to be seeking particular kinds of experiences and to have high expectations. Museum should work together with tourist agencies to work out better plans for cultural tourism industry. In principle, tourist agencies are eager to include this type of a museum into the general tourist program of Tallinn, while it presents completely new side of the states history. The number of the visitors of Tallinn in 2001 was more than 2,5 million in a year, then counting only two per cents of these visitors stop at this museum, it makes 50 000 guests. An excellent result for an Estonian museum! Also Russians as a biggest minority group in Estonia have a special place - many of them still dont have a vision about the events during and after the WW II and about the re-gaining the independence. Therefore they can be counted as a special tourist group as well. Communication between the tourist and the museum will work by three main means:A guided tour. Usually the tourists come in the groups and they have a tour in the museum. Most important information will be given by the guide.Available material in the museum exposition in the needed language.Additional written material / booklet / book / album.When tourists came alone, the satisfaction depends very much from the visual and written materials in the display, which are (not) obtainable. Tourists dont need a special programs, they need a highly provided material in the form of written or oral. The booklet about the museum idea and content is essential. IV Besides all this also the communication program to the local adult public will be worked out. The aim of the programs should be the stimulation of the return visits to the museum. It can include the following activities:Monthly lectures to the general public (half-a-year theme, i.e. Estonia during the WW II).Special program connected to the temporary exhibition.Film programs (i.e. movies of the other Soviet republics 1945 1991).The coordinators of many abovementioned projects can be the interns, students or volunteers, who enliven the museum atmosphere and keep the museum in touch with various people. 6.5.2. Exhibition strategies. Methods of display. Before stating the exhibition policy, one has to define the main methods of the display. These methods should be the main keywords for the creation of the permanent display, partly also to the temporary exhibitions. In total, this is the very basis of the museums face towards the public. By the way, the importance of designing the exhibitions grew only in 1970s together with increase of the thematic and interpretive displays, when the designers became the members of the museum staff. There are plenty of different display methods, which depend on the type of the cultural institution, theme and the target groups. In the museum context there are some defined systems of exhibition modes. According to Lord & Lord the main methods are aesthetic or contemplative display, contextual, thematic or didactic display, room setting and visible storage. After Peter van Mensch, the possibility to group the exhibitions is even greater: subjective, systematic, ecological and narrative in the structure; aesthetic, evocative and didactic in the style and static, dynamic and interactive in the technique.Taking abovementioned types as a base, I would like to analyze some display methods, which are most problematic and actual concerned with memorial museums. Total space Segmental spaceIn the beginning of 1990s the mentality towards the recent past was different. In one side people were afraid of the past and the lively memories; the other side they were strictly against the old system and mentality. This was time of hope and ideals. In Eastern Europe there wasnt any memorial museums, which were dedicated to the occupation yet. These kinds of museums started to emerge in the middle of 1990s and they were very clearly ideological and confronting. The expositions were (and still are) the total spaces, where one can turn back into the terrible past. Total space recreates the Past - or at least it recreates the sympathy to the Past. Its a totality of dreadfulness, entirety of fear and desire. These kind of museums are usually very one sided, usually with blinders in some certain themes. In the same time they are the most popular ones, because the story, what they represent, works mostly on the emotional level. The most common form of this display type is the room setting. Usually this type represents the hyperreality of the Past in an extreme serious and demanding way this is the strength and fear of this type of the memorial museum. The museum space is full of painful past that grabs your throat until you are back into the reality.Segmental space has been the main keyword in the recent commemorative museums. By the way, it has been used also in more neutral territories where the events of the past were not so terrifying or didnt last so long (i.e. in Denmark). This method, much more neutral one, doesnt imply on some certain and clear statements, but gives the certain amount of segmental information, from where is possible to choose (of course, the selection of this information might also be worth of discussing). The principle is the free choice of the visitor visitor decides, what he wants to see or read. The whole room is neutral; the objects are neutralized and out from their context, composed mostly according to the taste of the interior designer. The main drawbacks of this type of the display are the domination of the contemporary exhibition design values, frequent boredom and domination of the plain, un-contextulized objects. A chronology of a book A topic of a movieA contemporary museum wants to be everything as attractive and emotional as a movie, as deep as a book, as sincere as nature, as real as everyday life, as extraordinary as a fairy tale. Unfortunately everything together is not possible. Therefore the museums have selected two main ways for their existence chronological and thematical approach or museum as a book or a picture. The best ones can make a mixture of them but while usually it is quite difficult to combine them, one chooses the more suitable arrangement. Thematic arrangement has been used more in the museum type of the total space, chronological one in the museum type of segmental space. First one tells the complete story, an integral fairy tale of the past; where besides the numerous original and fake objects the environmental totality plays an important role. Chronological arrangement tells the History, usually with lot of text, pictures and numbers. Objects, though, are original. Exposition is serious and claims to the truth and objectiveness of the history. During the museum history both approaches have been interchanged in the late 1990s one tries again to combine these approaches, especially in the history museums. Although the overall strategy is chronological, the inner system is thematical one. In the memorial museums the solution of the method depends very much on the totality or segmentality of the space. The advantage of the thematical approach is the clarity of one theme it is there, in one place and everybody can have the overview about the topic through the different periods. In the same time the curators are afraid to use this system (especially in the greater displays), while in general it might be not so simple as the chronological one and needs some previous knowledge about the theme. Statement ExcitementA balance between statement and excitement is a very fragile one. With too much statements and neutral factology it is easy to kill the interest, with too much dramatics it is easy to change the museum into easy-emotional Disneyland. Both factors, statement and excitement, are substantial and they are significant also in the memorial museums. Museum must support the main theme by provided emotions - through the large-scale moving pictures or photos for example. Together with light it assigns the right emotion entering into the theme, inside the real objects, and gives the key understanding them. Wonderment is one of the most important key-words of contemporary museology. Wonder as an emotional effect starts from the right background (which ordinarily has been reached unconsciously by the visitors), which leads the visitor towards the object itself. The emotional level of the memorial museum is especially delicate it includes much pain together with guilt and suffering. While the previous factors (total or segmental space etc) are mainly worked out by the museum employees, then this part is mainly the job of the exhibition designer. Therefore it is extremely important to have high-qualified designer when these accentuations are wrongly equalized, the whole museum display falls into pieces. Activity InteractivityMuseums are becoming more and more active, imperative and demanding. This is connected with the effort of the museum gaining the more importance in the society. Therefore museum needs also to bind the Past and Present more tightly with each other. The visitors want to feel the connection with their everyday lives or experience this difference of their life. They want recognition. Recognition, what they can see or even touch. A contemporary possibility is to offer the possibility to act by the visitors to use so called interactive approach. People like to interact in the physical or in the mental manner. Probably it is too crucial to say that the interactivity is the future of the museums, but definitely it will have an important role in every fashionable museum. At least in theory the Museum of the Occupations is definitely an interactive one: one of the most important key-words of the museum is the possibility to use the information sources of the museum and to make your own researches in the computer. In this way the museum is a communicating institution, but for sure there has to be much more than the available information reservoir. What are the solutions for the Museum of Occupations?Creating the display of the museum one has to consider two different levels:National level museum must be exciting to the Estonians, it must be different from the other museums in Estonia. It should have something attractive and remeberable. One can start with some little things that everything works and operates on time, all the employees are competent and available, provision of working techniques, high-quality films, unique documentaries, possibility to try some Soviet objects etc. The display should be more or less the best mixture of quality and attitude. International level museum must be capable of competition with the other memorial and history museum in the western world. This will be the basis for the further co-operation. In this context the good quality of display and attitude of the display space is one of the prerequisites, the museum should work more on the originality on form and content, emphasizing the uniqueness of Estonian history. Choosing the type of the display depends on the target group, to whom the museum is directed. When the target groups are the tourists and students, then the exhibition might be a chronological one, because one of the presumptions is that the potential visitor doesnt know anything about the subject. And its easier to analyze the topic in chronological and in the same time in a quite broad way, defining the main principles of each period. When the main target group is the local public, then the more effective way is the thematical approach, while it allows the more profound and the problem-centered methodology. The basic display method for the permanent exhibition of the Museum of Occupation is a chronological didactive method. A segmental space supports the idea of neutrality and provides the open air between the different time periods. Next to the systematic approach the interactive technique will be used (computer based research possibilities). This solution is very traditional one and much used in the museum practice. Besides it gives the clearest overview about the history of Estonia together with the most important facts and some selected objects. It depends much on the designers, how they can enliven the permanent display (More closer read the Chapter 6.5.3.). The part of the temporary exhibitions should be a different one, and based on more contemporary and various solutions, attached with Peter Vergo`s new sensibility. In principle the methods used in the display are very Nordic-European ones. Coolness in design and content, high-tech and comfortableness are some of the key-words of our dreamed identity about our entire environment. The other theme is a question about the connection between the abovementioned criterions and the theme of the museum. Besides the basic solutions there is possible to use some small methodological aspects, which can refresh the museum space: Listen to the visitor. While the museums are usually made for the people, it could be useful also to listen them as well. One of the widest problems of the museums lies on that fact that they dont listen to the public. Let the people say, what and how they want to see the history. It does usually consist more than you expect. Museum as a total exhibition. While the aim of the contemporary museum is to be as attractive as possible, it is important to include into the exhibition all the floors, including the cellar and the first floor (the library and the space next to the escalator in the other side of the library). As much a visitor likes to move horizontally he prefers to propel also vertically vertical moving has a very special psychological effect, which has been used a lot in the museum architecture. Only enfolding all the possible spaces into one whole, the museum works effectively. As the space on the main floor has a changing look, so also every level should have its own appearance and a character, which is intriguing to the visitor. One object exhibition. Besides the large temporary exhibition there is significant to create small, so called one object exhibitions. These describe in depth only or two objects - the new acquisition, recently renovated work or the study connected with some certain item. These are small, but usually quite attractive exhibition-corners. At the moment there hasnt been planned a suitable space for this type of exhibition - this should be more or less separated niche of the museum. When the museum has a will, this could be organized in the cellar or on the first floor. At the moment both spaces are artistically unutilized. Movie as a highest form of culture. Movie / documentary was one of the most important cultural forms in the Soviet society and also the most influential ideological weapon. Museum has a unique opportunity to present the different movies / documentaries / cartoons as ideological means or as mediums of confrontation. Besides they present most clearly the emotions and life standards of the existence of this period. All the displayed movies in the permanent show are created by Estonian directors. A Review (Ringvaade) systematically produced reviews about some aspects of Estonia. Excellent illustration of the ideologization of the society. Presented before the movie-show instead of commercials. Museum has a room for the film programs possible to show the reviews as one unending story from the end of 1940s to the mid 1980s or as a part of a permanent exhibition.Other documentaries domination of Socialist ideology. Movies (1945 1991). From the official cooperation to the hidden confrontation. Cartoons (1945 1991). With high quality and irony.Commercials. Like people liked to say during the Soviet time: commercials were meant to the commodities, which couldnt be sell otherwise. Music videos (c.1985 1990). Search for the European image. All abovementioned films are magnetizing and will become definitely the attractions of the museum display. At the moment the museum doesnt have any certain place showing any partition of these possibilities (i.e. they can be shown in the film room, in a small room in the first floor or in the caf). Personal memories. Documented memories of the people, who came through a flow of the history. Visible storage. Open storage is one of the most popular presentation methods in the contemporary museum, which reflects particularly the current trends in the museum politics to show more the hidden treasures of the museum. Usually they are popular places in the museum, especially because of the fullness of the objects and not designed interior its like a hidden and undiscovered store. What else makes the visitor more curious than that? In this museum the open storage is not planned, but partly it is possible to organize the museum has already too many objects to present on the permanent show. The storages of this museum are in the cellar, where is nothing more than the toilets and the lockers. When its possible to use unbreakable and fireproof glass for some storage walls its possible to see inside the storages and to the several objects as well. When nobody is in the storage, the room is quite dim, but when the collection manager or curator works there, there is possible to see more. It is possible to use less sensitive materials in the visible zone like metal, glass and stone. The possibility to see inside to the storage is important in two reasons:None of Estonian museums has such an attraction. It is small, but important detail introducing the museum works into the broader public. On the wall there might be some interesting details about the principles of the storage, i.e. usually the 9/10 of the collection is in the storage; what are these things, which you can see, what is the right temperature and light to these visible artifacts and why it is so, etc.And at last, not at least: the visitor must be able to spend in the museum at least about one hour (visit includes the permanent and temporary exhibitions, caf, toilets). This means, that although the museum space is very small, it should provide a high-quality matter to keep the visitors in the museum for some certain time amount. Therefore besides the original artifacts also attractive co-materials and co-products are important (possibility to use all the three levels of the museum, motion movies, documentaries, sitting places, information corners etc). Museum must provide surprises and unexpected gains and keep the guest busy through the entire visitation. 6.5.3. Content of the design. The museum has one huge display area, in total 507 m2. It has been divided into two parts: Permanent display (237 m2), together with period settings.Temporary display (270 m2).Although their content is different, they have to integrate and combine one whole: 1. ENTRANCE 19402. TEMPORARY EXHIBITION3. PERMANENT EXHIBITIONPERMANENT EXHIBITIONSEMINAR ROOM / STAIRS / INFORMATION SCREENSCAF 1991SOUND AROUND PERIOD SETTINGBefore starting to propose some ideas about the exhibition politics, there is necessary to repeat six principles of a good exhibition:Remember the audience;Exhibitions dont tell, they show;Exhibitions are provocative, not comprehensive;A good question is better than a declaration;Interaction, unexpected connections, surprises, and even humor are all pluses; Match media with message.Permanent display. The basis for the permanent display is the division of eight time periods in the Estonian history during the years 1940 1991. Emphasis is on the ideology and life under the occupation, which is based on the chronological order. - The display must form one narrative, which can be followed by the visitor the themes in different decades should be repeated in this manner, that the visitor doesnt have to be confused and not to learn new terms all the time but can operate with the same vocabulary during the whole exhibition. - Although the principle of the display is neutral and objective, also some visual dramatics is allowed it makes the exhibition more lively and visitor-friendly. I.e. use of the light, the most fashionable tool of the interior design. Also the details can add the dramatics, i.e. the daily food portions during and after the war.- Designing the display each of the chronological section should form an independent space for a contemplation, research, discussion and digest. This refers to Kenneth Hudsons idea of the circular arrangement as a basis for museum revolution: museum display as a pattern of circles and closed views, so that sitting down and reflecting becomes an automatic reaction what one has seen. - Designing the exhibition the arrangement must be understandable and spacious both to the visitors who will come alone and who will come in groups.Into each section one can enter through a sound-around zone, where is possible to hear the music typical to this time. Different type of music must be presented, following to each other in a random order (i.e. in the 1980s, during the Perestroika and Singing Revolution both Alo Mattiesen and J.M.K.E.). Together with the music there could be also some details of the period setting. The things can tell very much about themselves. Visitor should see some original theme corners, i.e. Volga the dream of the Soviet people, Red-corner of the school, dentists` equipment etc. Period setting method should visualize the display in a more wonder-based manner and should be hands-on oriented. Kistler-Ritso Foundation owns a very unique environment a small cell of the political convicts. This should be also a part of the permanent exhibition, while it becomes definitely one of the strongest experiences of this display. Playing on the experiences might be a forceful method creating a mighty emotion.The essential core of each period forms the division of the film serial The Recent Occupations in Estonia (produced by Kistler-Ritso Foundation), which is also the dominant part of each section.The reviews can be seen in the opposite side of the film serial The Recent Occupations in Estonia it creates kind of confrontation between the ideology of the past and the stories spoken by the historians and contemporaries. More simple is to show the reviews in the separate film room.The second important detail is the computer-screen, where one can find additional information about certain time period (the basic keywords of the period and the facts about the population, immigration, deportations, joining with collective farms and with the Communist party; later on resigning of the Communist party, joining with Peoples` Front etc).The wall around the screen and the space around it is fulfilled by the text, photos (copies, (half)transparent materials) and some illustrative and specific objects and documents to this time. Objects should represent the everyday life of this time period - things of this time in a random order and system together with a hint, in which context they belonged. Objects / documents can also be enlarged and some of them can turn around their own axletree.Some surprise moments are suggested. I.e. reading about the putting the people to the rack, suddenly the intense light flashes into the eyes of the visitor; when walking by the corridor, unexpectedly its possible to see some enlightened display boxes under your feet. Important details are the maps and simple schemas, which should be substantial components of the show (i.e. map of the deportation camps in the USSR together with the biggest Estonian camps).Changing the exhibition more personal it is possible to hang some written memories on the walls (like a memory book, where the visitor can turn the pages so it doesnt take much space).A4 black-and-white copies about the certain themes in the museum space, inside the transparent plastic boxes, which can be taken in case of more profound interest about the theme.While the size of the permanent exhibition isnt large, one has to use also the floors effectively. There can be some deepened places or grooves, which are lighted from inside. I.e. on the floor one can find the exemplifying materials about one of the most important propaganda means - the school: the school uniforms, caps, shoes, books, cards, badges etc. This illustrates also effectively the mentality and fashion of certain periods. While the permanent display includes lot of time-taking material, also some benches are needed (to watch the movies, documentaries etc). In everyday context the part of the permanent exhibition is also an open seminar-room (stairs). On the stairs one can find some computers - information screens, where the visitors can find additional information about the history of Estonia. Temporary exhibitions. The space for the temporary exhibitions is the largest and highest area in the museum. Therefore it is necessary to have a very clear and well-planned exhibition schedule. Exhibition plan should be agreeable to the research themes, but not only. It should also reflect the interests of the visitors which would be the attractive themes to the broader public? I.e. it can include portrait stories about the escaping from the occupied Estonia or about fighters for freedom or on contrary about the people, who collaborated effectively with the system. Individual approach helps to see the tendencies in the society in a more broad way; also the portrait form suits well to this amount of space. Although the word blockbuster has already a negative sound, the museum shouldnt be afraid to make visitor-friendly and popular exhibitions. Blockbusters are necessary for museum promotion. The biggest practical problems with temporary exhibitions are the amount of the space and highness the preparation of the material for this amount of space is large, especially when the curators dont have a lot of former practice. Also it is not very practical to hang as high as 6 or 5 meters. Another practical issue confuses the integrity the museum this is connected with the change of the temporary exhibitions. For a space as large as 270 m2 it is needed one full week for up-hanging process and half of it for the removing the display. During the mantling process the whole work of the museum is disarranged, there is difficult if not possible to see the permanent show although the library can be open. In the other side the idea of reaching straight to a new temporary exhibition when entering the museum is admirable. The common tradition is contravene through the permanent exhibition one can reach to the temporary one the possibility, that the visitors observe the permanent exhibition, is then a little bit greater. Also the half-transparent glass-walls allow hinting the changes of the display also from outside, which in principle can be very attractive.Temporary exhibitions are the most expensive components of the museum work, because besides the preparation and design also printed materials are needed. Calculations for the temporary displays are usually undervalued both in financial and intellectual aspects. In the same time the temporary exhibition can be the best and long-lasting promotion for the museum. Next to the ordinary exhibition space a particular problem exists with the cellar and with the first floor, where next to the working rooms of the employees is the library. As there has been talked about the museum as a total space (p. 66), it might be useful to integrate the cellar and first floor to the absolute exhibition. It is simpler with a cellar. One can use the floor (deepened places with light, if possible it can be a piece of Soviet gallery what was actually under this building or some pipes from this time), middle part of the room (if the fire security allows some sculptures or the example of Soviet bathtub or basin) or the walls (all the walls can be covered with life size photo-tapestry, which depict the people in the line a typical fact of everyday Soviet society). The principles of the first floor depend on the preferences of the museum if the library is open for the researchers only, then the floor should be isolated as much as possible, because the research needs the silence. If the library is meant to every interested visitor, then it can include also other attractions, i.e. small one object exhibition or something similar. Then the glass windows should isolate the library from the room of the researchers. 6.5.4. Route of the museum. Planning the content and the design of the display it is imperative to create it in this way, that the visitor understands the circulation path of the museum. Creating the chronological display it is usual to follow the proposed timeline, so the visitor starts from the beginning, from the WW II and ends with positive look towards the future. Usually the right-handed people when coming to the museum like to turn to right while the information desk is directly in left side, probably they turn and buy a ticket (when not, who is going to control them?). And from the ticket office it is quite logical to begin also watching the (permanent) show. When they go straight to the lockers corner in the cellar, then coming back to the ground floor, they might be more confused, because they happened to stand in the end of the exhibition. Therefore it is important to determine the suggested circulation route at least when the guests want to have clarity about the exhibition, the information has been provided to them. Of course, when the visitor wants to stroll or ramble around the museum, he must understand which time period he just happened to visit. 6.5.5. Outreach programs. Outreach programs are the natural activities of the contemporary museum. In the context of the Museum of Occupations the traveling exhibition is one of the most important ones. To prepare the traveling exhibition per se is a big work, but preparing the temporary exhibitions inside the museum it is important to remember also the possibility to show this display also somewhere else. Traveling exhibition might be moreover the part (core) of the exhibition; it depends on the space of the potential exhibition place. Outreach programs can cover the smaller towns and places of Estonia, but it is possible to show them in abroad as well (based on the co-operation and co-projects of the other similar museums in Europe). Therefore the museum should have the spacious technical room(s) for preparation and protection the exhibition materials for the certain time periods. It is also necessary to get next to the technical rooms with the track.6.5.6. Exhibition policy.The objectives of the exhibition programThe priority of the exhibition policy is to satisfy the interests of Estonian visitor. Although the museums` priority is national level, it tries to open also the local and international backgrounds of this particular period (through small or traveling exhibitions or borrowed exhibitions).The museum must be able to produce the exhibitions by itself. At least 50% of all the exhibitions of the museum have be produced / organized by the museum. Museum co-operates with the other research and cultural institutions (Estonian History Museum, Tallinn City Museum, Museum of Applied Art etc), which produce one exhibition per a year for the Museum of Occupations. This helps to enlarge the diversity of the themes and the approaches of the period. Together with a display the museum prepares also the educational program and additional printed material connected with a theme.The philosophy of presentationMuseum presents the recent history of Estonia, the occupation period between the years 1940-1991, as large amount and as attractively as possible, using the contemporary technical means and methods. Museum is meant to all people who are interested in this topic, regardless their level of their previous knowledge or ability / possibility of attention.Exhibition policy tries to have a balance between the scholarship and visitor attraction, therefore the museum creates at least one narrow-themed and deep going and at least one popular and to the broader public oriented exhibition in a year. The principle of presentation is diversity in the methods of display, objects and other presentation materials. All the exhibition parts are different from each other, reflecting separate sides of the museological thought. Place of the temporary exhibitions is continually renewing.One of the main attractions of the museum is the interactive and hands-on material (visitors can choose the matter, what they are interested in). The exhibition plan will be worked out by the museum employees and approved by the board of the foundation. The board has the highest authority regarding the problems with the content and design of the exhibitions. The number, frequency, size and scope of temporary exhibitions.Museum provides 2 - 4 temporary exhibitions per year, maximum half of them together with co-operation with other institutions. The minimum duration of one exhibition is two months. The museum provides three different types of exhibitions: displays for the temporary museum space, one-object exhibitions in the separate corner and traveling exhibitions.Museum can also borrow the exhibitions, but not more than two exhibitions per a year.Museum organizes at least one traveling exhibition in Estonia and one in abroad in every two years. 6.5.7. Orientation and Interpretation.This chapter recalls the useful methods for the museum when communicating with the public. Museum of Occupations is an information oriented institution therefore it is important to provide the information and interpretation material as much as possible.All the materials, both in the paper-based and computer-based, should be besides Estonian at least in three foreign languages: in English, Russian and German.Orientation is one of the main keywords which makes the visit (un)pleasant one. Visitors should know about all the possibilities of the museum in the beginning of the visit, later they might dont have time or interest anymore. Outside of the museum there has to be a name of the museum, a logo or something visual, which explains the basic content of the building.The prime needs of the visitors are the questions about the information, orientation and access. At least in the lobby of the museum there should be enough information about the institution, its content and concept. It can be a permanent information sign together with the supporters of the institution, but also a booklet in various languages. In one-way or another, the sign/booklet should clarify the meaning of the museum, its exploring methods and possibilities. The booklet might include the plan of the museum (if it is not on the ticket). In the lobby there should be a consistent way-finding system to the exhibitions, library, use of wheelchairs, seminar room, caf, lockers and toilets. All the orientation systems should be carried out in the same style. As much information the museum provides, the most important orientation assistants are the people in the ticket sale (or information) desk and the guide-guard. Therefore the museum must guarantee, that these people can communicate in the main foreign languages. As important as orientation is also the clarity of labels and textual part of the exhibition and the high provision of information (staff in the ticket sale desk, guide-guard, library, computer databases and programs, educational programs, lectures, guided tours etc). The communication officer must be responsible for these criterions. 6.5.8. Marketing. Marketing is the integral part of the museums communication with a public, while it is closely connected to audience development, which aims to create a broader visitor base while at the same time building a closer relationship with the museums regular visitors. All the museum employees are connected and partly responsible of the marketing matter, while in general is marketing everything, what is available to the public: the display, the people and the atmosphere of the museum. Museum marketing focuses on three main problems:Identifying and communicating the museums present and potential market;Advocating the continual improvement of the museums products and services, so that the visitors visit the museum and return again; Increasing attendance and visitor-generated revenues. Therefore the marketing strategy should be clearly defined and continuing and although all the museum employees are partly working on this issue, one person should be responsible about this point (i.e. marketing manager. In this context he can be a director, if he is more an administrative not a curatorial leader). Recently founded museums can effectively use the comparatible analysis, which consist of in-depth interviews with staff in comparable institutions. Also it is essential to execute a profound market research about the non-visitors and visitors visitors of the Estonian museums in general and potential visitors about this museum. SWOT analysis might be also an effective method clarifying the strengths and weaknesses of the museum. From this background the helpful strategic options are needed to work out, which are based on the market and products: market penetration, market development, product development and diversification. Advocating the improvement of the museums products and services, the museum can start with printed materials about the display and collection:Tour guidePrinted materials on special themesAlbum of the collection and about the museumMaps (i.e. map of the concentration camps, map of Soviet Union etc). Postcardsbut alsoBadgesT-shirts, which also can be sold in the museum shop.Also the tickets of the museum should be special and memorable ones: A4, together with a plan / route of the museum. Sticker + plan (on the sticker there is a sign of the museum)Stamp + plan (on the stamp there can be the sign or the name and the year numbers of the museum in a robust manner). Both sticker and mark might be stamped on the hand of the visitor as a long(er)-lasting memory from the museum - in the same time it remembers the social system, which was completely categorized and labeled. Museum as a brand.It is essential for a museum to work with its brand image: with the name, with the visual symbol of a museum - a logo and with the clear message of this unique institution. Image of a product might be the most continuing aspect of the whole history of the institution, which is extremely difficult to change. Therefore it is necessary to work out the positive and working image in advance.The problem of a name will be discussed in the Chapter 7. The logo of a museum should contain the content / basic idea of the museum and it should be possible to use in diverse materials, scales and places. Logo becomes usually the symbol of the museum. Together with the sign of the museum it is necessary to design an exclusive company graphics all materials must be executed in this manner beginning with the labels ending with the album of the museum. One part of the museum graphics is also a certain combination of colors, which will be used both in the visual accessories of the museum but also in the museum interiors.Clear message or the short statement of the museum reflects the basic idea of this institution and this will be used in various places advertising and promoting the institution. In this case: LIFE UNDER THE OCCUPATIONS. Advertising.This particular museum can use the following advertising methods:Printed posters about the museum and about temporary exhibitions in the city spaceLeaflets / booklets about the museum Ads in the newspapersAds in the radio Invitation cardsInternet promotion Special advertising campaigns at schools (information booklets for the schools / teachers` materials) Special advertising campaigns in the tourist agencies. For bigger temporary events the museum can organize a special advertising campaign. In general its important to have much paper-based material, while Estonian public and also visiting tourists are used to get tangible and easy gettable matter. But the common truth is that the best advertising affects spokenly. Good experiences and memories from the museum is the best advertising. Public relations.Public relations may have higher credibility than advertising because it appears as news and not as sponsored (paid-for) information. [] PR also extends the reach of advertising, breaks through commercial clutter, and makes news before advertising. Therefore it is important to have a high-quality PR officer who can use this situation for the sake of the museum. The following PR methods are effective in this museum:Press releasesPress conferencesSeminarsPublicationsVarious activities promoting the institutionSpecial events for the different target groups (families, sponsors, possible donators etc)Lobbying in the government institutions, sponsors` organizations and donatorsAnnual reports about the activity of the museum.6.5.9. Visitor research.Visitors research of the museum visitors is essential for every self-respecting museum, which is interested in their visitors. The aim of this thesis is not to provide a profound visitor study and museum evaluation program, but to offer some everyday methods, which can be also useful for understanding the visitor attitudes and the quality of their visit. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation is equally important, while only the both sides combine the comprehendible picture about the visitors of the museum. While the quantitative research is more or less a job of the ticket sales officer (if the museum doesnt deal with special inquiries), then the qualitative research is a time consuming activity for the other staff (curators) and interns of the museum. Some examples:Visitor book, where visitors can write about their experiences and emotions the first and usually most sincere feedback about the institution. The book should be in the end of the display, but before the leaving rush and in the place, which do all the guests pass. In-gallery conversation (free talk, by the museum employees).Observation (by the interns).Small questionnaires about the visit, which are filled by the visitors themselves or asked by the museum employees. Focus groups (before the new permanent display and temporary exhibitions, by the museum employees). 6.5.10. Visitor Services. Visitor services provide the face and attitude of the museum. Therefore it is important to create to the people who are working in visitor services a comfortable atmosphere and emphasize their belonging to the museum community. - The admission desk is after the entering the first experience in the museum. Therefore it is important to have there a person, who has an overview about everything, whats inside the museum and the basic knowledge about the other cultural institutions in the town. He has to speak foreign languages. His primary duty is to sell the tickets and give the information. Also he has to record the data about the visitors (how many visitors / tourists / school groups etc) this recording must be a part of his everyday routine. His secondary duty is to sell the books, postcards and souvenirs, which are also on the admission desk. If the amount of visitors is too high, the museum has to hire a second clerk for the museum-shop.The wardrobe problem has been solved as a lockers` system. Guide-security should provide all the needed information about the museum and helps the visitor in a needed way. His second duty is to have a controlling eye on the visitors. Caf is also an integral part of museum visitor services. According to the space plan it is a small caf with cold buffet, but with lot of seats and resting places. The preconditions of disabled people are considered in advance (entering, escalator, level of exhibits). Parking place is next to the museum (for 5 cars).Visitors orientation depends also much on the efforts of the curators, educator and a director of the museum. Therefore (at least in the beginning), the museum should arrange their working time also when most of the visitors are really staying in the museum that means during the weekends and holidays. Hiring out.Renting out the museum space can help to find new supporters or visitors of the museum; also it promotes the museums among the people, who otherwise wouldnt visit this kind of institutions. According to the type of the museum, the seminar room and/or the space of the temporary exhibitions can be hired out only some certain events, i.e. for the conferences, seminars, presentations, meetings, some special concerts or cultural happenings.When the event will take place after the closing time of the museum, the museum administration must guarantee the security of the museum space and objects (extra person for a security; only part of the museum will be open etc). Open hours. The time plan of opening times of the museum depends much on the target groups and aims, what the museum wants to purpose. While in the beginning there might be enough visitors also during the usual opening time, it is not necessary to keep the museum open also in a one evening in a week. This can be done later, when museum knows better, if the museum has finances and need to be more open to the public. Although its the best, when the museum could be open seven days in a week, then according to the amount of planned employees the proposed opening schedule is the following: Open Thursday Monday 10 18.Open for the researchers Monday Friday 10 17 (this means: possibility to get professional help).When the library is a public division of the museum, it might be open also during the weekends, but then the museum has to ensure the protection of the books. Important principle of a museum is the human touch - in the museum must always be somebody, who can help. He can be a curator, librarian, guide-security or employee in the admission desk, but the principle should be, that on Saturdays and Sundays somebody except the ticket-seller and caf-keeper must be in the house. 6.6. Security.Security means entire range of activities concerned with the protection of the public, staff and collections. Security in everyday museum environment involves staff, barriers, signage, collection management practices, housekeeping activities, environmental monitoring, alarms and surveillance. Security should be one of the main considerations in the museum, which concerns everybody working in the museum. The museum should start with risk analysis and continue with security policy, which includes the ordinary actions of the effective protection of the museum, the levels of security in the exhibition and in the storages, defense circles and methods of protection of the collection and people and prerequisites for fire, flood and theft safety. The main aim of the security policy should include not only what to de in response to the problems, but also how to prevent them from occurring. Security problems of the building are not discussed here, while this is a too large and separate topic, which must be disputed together with architects, inner architects, security firm and museum employees. Some hints about the common security possibilities according to the need of the Museum of Occupation:Speaking about the high security space the display then besides the perimeter alarms inside the building (?) and closed-circuit television system in the museum, it should include also a person, who more or less guards the museum display. There are three main reasons for that: Too technical museum might loose its human touch. This type of museum is primarily a human centered museum and it should be reflected also in the security system. The used techniques have to be hided as much as possible. Nothing replaces the presence of an alert security staff member as a means of providing real security. The closed-circuit television system, which becomes the main security method, will be not controlled in the museum, but in the security center far from the museum building. Security firm comes into the object only because of the serious malevolent action or critical accident. Therefore it is essential that at least one person lets call him a security-guide or a public-relations specialist - walks in the display area barely all small mistakes are coming from the unknowing / unnoticing the potential problem. Being present prevents also most of these small undertakings, which begins usually from the curiosity or mischief. Definitely his first duty is to explain the display, talk about the problems of a history and add some supplementary information, his co-job is to hold the eye on the display as well. Although this type of employee hasnt appreciated by the theory as the most operative one, it might work effectively in this small museum space. A security-guide can be a student of history, an intern, who doesnt stay into the museum for a long time, but gets only his first practice in the museum work. Anyway, a very effective beginning for the museum career. Security-guide should have a badge or hand band, by that he is clearly distinguishable. The easiest way of safeguarding is using barriers. Its already practiced truth, that the psychological barriers are more effective than the physical ones, i.e. barriers that afford convenient places to sit or rest are often unintentional; barriers can be also the places, where one can lean on or instead a barrier there can be another floor level with different coloring. These methods can effectively be used also in this museum environment.Signing the museum space, which informs the visitors how to act and where to go, is also simple and effective way securing the museum from the unintentional activity. A proper collection management, housekeeping and environmental monitoring are the basis for a security of the collection. People, who are responsible for these issues, must be professionals and be aware of specifics of the museum surroundings. Environmental monitoring of the whole building should be a responsibility of the collection manager. And at last, but not at least - although the museum visitors are usually very honest people, it can happen, that also they want to enter without the ticket. One of the concrete security problems is how the museum controls the tickets? Looking at the plan of the museum it is extremely easy to get in also without the card and when nobody controls this, its even simpler. One solution might be to use visible tickets, which can be placed on the clothes or on the palms, but its definitely not a resolution for the problem. 6.7. Financial planning.One of the most important questions for the existence of the museum is the problem of finances; principally this responds whether the museum becomes an alive institution or a vegetating establishment. Therefore the theme of funding becomes more and more imperative in the discussions of the board of the museum until this moment anything isnt clear except the fact that Kistler-Ritso Foundation pays for the building and planning of the museum display. Consequently it is essential to calculate the expenses and incomes for the museum during the following year after the opening, in 2004. More or less the sums are same also in the next years. BUDGET 2004 (Proposed budget)EXPENSESSalaries (bruto) EEKDirector (12 000 x 12)144 0007 employees (8000 x 12)672 000+ 33 % (tax) 269 280Book-keeping (4000 x 12) 48 000Security (15 000 x 12)180 000Maintenance (5000 x 12) 60 000 1 373 280 Acquisitions400 000Governance of the building (heating, climate, administration, materials for everyday technical maintenance etc)1 000 000Temporary exhibitions (2 per a year) 80 000Booklets, leaflets, post-cards etc 50 000Catalogue150 000Advertising 50 000Restoration projects outside the museum 75 000Educational programs100 000Visitor research projects 20 000Research projects 60 000Special events 15 000Books for the library 30 000Museum souvenirs 25 000 2 055 000Together: 3 428 280SELF GENERATED REVENUES Admissions (70 000 visitors per a year; ticket 10/25)1 225 000Excursions150 000Museum shop 25 000Caf 60 000Hiring out 50 000Educational programs 10 000Special events 10 000Together: 1 530 000 CONTRIBUTED REVENUESKistler- Ritso Foundation1 000 000Ministry of Culture (government funding) 500 000Endowments, sponsorship 398 280Together: 1 898 280The museum budget approximately 3,5 million EEK reflects the size of the museum The Museum of Occupations is a middle scale museum in the context of Estonian museums. From the budget comes out that the costs for such a kind of museum are not amazingly high. The expenses are dividable into three main pieces: salaries, governance and all the activities of the museum institution. There are different prospects for the museum; most likely there can be two possibilities: Museum becomes a state museum and will be subsided by the state. Museum functions as a foundation museum, which earns its incomes from different sources. First alternative is much more secured, because although the sums are not extremely big, they are steady. The other problem is, whether the state wants to own a new museum as far it has been quite against of such an idea. The second possibility allows continuing as an independent institution, which gives more freedom and possibilities for extra financing. One way or another the museum should continue as a foundation, which allows being more flexible in the management of the cultural institution. When the museum wants to maintain as a foundation museum, it should have at least one powerful supporter as at the moment has been the Kister-Ritso Foundation who can cover at least 1/3 of the total expenses of the museum. Otherwise the gaps between the needs and expenses are too large; the society isnt ready to sponsor the culture as large amount as these numbers and the museum itself cannot earn as much it is needed for an active heritage institution. When the Kistler-Ritso Foundation is eager to continue financing the museum, then the museum should keep on as a foundation museum, of course together with an assistance of the state and other Estonian establishments, while then it can keep its unique position in the museum field of Estonia. But and this is most important - these decisions should be made today, not after the opening of the museum in 2003. While it would be mostly unbelievable to become all the support from one source, the supreme scheme of financing the museum for the next three years is the following: Major financing (2,5 million) Co-financing (1 million)2003Kistler-Ritso Self-generated revenuesState supportEndowmentsSponsors3,5 million EEK2004Kistler-RitsoSelf-generated revenuesState supportEndowmentsSponsors3,5 million EEK2005Kistler-RistoSelf-generated revenuesState supportEndowmentsSponsors3,5 million EEK 7. A Functional Brief.A following functional brief is more an analysis than a statement for the functional needs and requirements for space and facilities of this museum, while the construction is already rising. The changes are possible only inside the building. The space program of all the contemporary museums is more or less the same and it consists of some certain spaces, so called zones:1. Public collection zone:Exhibition space (permanent and temporary exhibitions)2. Public non-collection zone:Foyer / Entrance / Corridors Seminar room RestroomsCafeLibrary and archiveStudy centerNon-public collection zone:StoreroomsRoom for the preparation of the exhibitions (also for the keeping design elements of the traveling exhibitions)Restoration department / cornerNon-public non-collection zone:Rooms of the employees Technical rooms.Planning the right space program one needs to know the needs of the museum, contemporary museological trends and be aware of all the possible problems in the museum structure. Planning the museum space is long and time-consuming process, which consists of specialists of various professions.Special attention should be turned to the security of the rooms (lighting, heat, humidity, noise, pollution, height etc.) and to the risk management (disaster planning and crisis management) for an emergency cases. The total of the space is 1419 m2 (netto):0. Memorial 97 m2 (not included into the permanent exhibition space, while its situating outside of the museum walls),1. Exhibition space (together with cinema room) - 536 m2,2. Restrooms 20,3 m2,Seminar room - 63,7 m2,Caf 87,6 m2,Library 106 m2,Room of the Union of Defense 44,6 m2,3. Storerooms 181,5 m2, Interspace (Room for conservation) 36,5 m2,4. Rooms for the employees 98,5 m2,Technical rooms 206 m2,Assistance rooms 45,8 m2. According to Lord& Lord, the zoning the space helps to define the needs of the museum and helps to create the balanced and functioning museum building, where the 60 % of the building is open to the public about 40% is usually galley space and 20% collection support space (public non-collection zone). 20% of the overall space should lie under the rooms, which are not open for the public, but connected with the collection and 20% for the spaces, which neither are connected with collection nor open to the ordinary public. More or less the space plan of the Museum of Occupation suits with this proposal, only the public collection and non-public collection zone are smaller than proposed table suggests. 0. Memorial. Memorial as an essential part of this museum has a symbolical value of the whole museum. As a entire museum, also the memorial doesnt have a central point. Memorial is an environment, where one can go through. Excellent idea. Hopefully the idea of the memorial will be not degraded by the smokers or tourist- and school-groups, which are gathering themselves to visit the museum. 1. Public collection zone:Exhibition space is the core of every museum. The requisitions of this part are the most demanding ones. Its always more difficult to plan the smaller museum, because the visitors can become bored more easily (Aah, I can see everything already from the door.), walk through the museum faster (Im already back in the beginning), dissatisfied, when they cant see everything what they count to see (there is nothing in the cellar. the library is closed) or when they dont see these things what they expecting for (there is nothing about the Soviet Army.).2. Public non-collection zone:Foyer / Entrance is the most important place for gathering and gaining the information. Hopefully large enough to enfold the coming and leaving groups and all the visitors, who want to buy the tickets, to buy something from the museum shop or who want some additional information and all this on the same time. Seminar room is during the ordinary days a part of the permanent exhibition although it doesnt consist of the original artifacts its kind of information center with computer screens. The unlocked space towards the exhibition space emphasizes the openness of the museum space, so the space should be kept as much open as possible. The other question is how soundproof the space turns out to be, when one separates the seminar room with the screens. More separated seminar room (if it will be used much) would be probably more useful; at the moment it is more an attractive and unique part of the museum display. Possible to sit on the stairs and observe the screens, the show and the people. And its really nice in this way. Restrooms for the public are in the cellar: together are two toilets for women, one toilet and urinal for men. Unisex toilet fashionable, but may cause the problems in the teenagers` groups. Extra toilet for the disabled people. Caf an elementary addition of every self-respecting museum. The employees can have their dinner in the diner of the National Library, while the caf can provide only cold snacks, salads and pies. Hopefully on the oldfashionable utensils but not in the company of the oldfashionable service manners. In the other side of the caf, which marches with seminar room, is a bigger table, where should be possible to read the magazines, newspapers and the books, which are in sale in the museum shop. Library and archive a place for contemplation and research. Information center of the museum. If the library is open to the public, then it should be open during the open hours of the museum; if its meant only for the personnel and the researchers, then the library can be open during the usual working hours. A working place for the curator-librarian. Study center for the schools and people with greater interest is missing at the moment. Study center can be used also for the information days for the tourist agencies and teachers, also for course days for the volunteers and interns. When its vacant, also the ordinary visitor can visit the room, enjoy the plans and study objects. Hopefully the museum will use the room of the Union of Defense for that purpose, which suits perfectly because of its size (44 m2) and location (ground floor, behind the permanent exhibition). Room needs contemporary information- and video technique, also large-scale plans and models. Non-public collection zone:Storerooms are divided according to the different needs of the materials in three separate spaces. There should be a good connection between the store- and working rooms. Planning the storerooms one should count also the increase of the collection by different type of accessioning methods. Preparation of the exhibitions can take place in vaheruum (interspace), which is situating next to the storerooms, so there is no need for long-distance carriage of objects. Physical preparation of the display needs sometimes lot of time and space; also it can be quite noisy and dirty. Museum should prevent the noisy actions during the opening hours. To prevent the storerooms and objects from the dust these actions should take part in a separate room. It is possible to divide the vaheruum (interspace) into two different purpose rooms: for the preparation of the exhibitions and for the labor room for the collection manager, whose responsibility is also to make the easier conservation works. Restoration department / corner for the easier conservation works should be also in this museum. It is normal, that at least one of the museum employees knows about the conservation problems and can value, how and who can repair the object. A collection manager has to participate in the study program in some restoration center, because ordering all the conservation activities from outside is going to be very expensive. Non-public non-collection zone:Rooms of the employees are actually the most important ones, because from there starts all the action connected with a museum. Therefore all the rooms for the personnel should be contemporary and abundant of creativity. At the moment there are only two separate rooms for the employees: the directors office and the room for two curators (latter one can be also a room for the curator and the secretary). Reminding the tasks of the contemporary museum, the museum should at least supplement one additional working space for the exhibition and education manager (one can make the room of the meetings a little bit smaller; at the moment its like a hall of the meetings). One of the cellar rooms should become the workroom for the collection manager, while especially in the beginning there is very much to do with the documentation and conservation of the objects; the other for the technician of the museum. The room for the meetings (both official and unofficial meetings between the employees of the museum; also the gathering place for the volunteers etc) is imperative space for changing the ideas, to discuss, to have a break etc. therefore especially important to the staff themselves. Thats why it must have a coach and it should include some contentment and coziness. Technical rooms are all the rooms, which are connected with the maintaining the building (pipes, machines, also rooms for cleaning equipment etc). Institution, who ordered the museum, didnt have any special pre-conditions, demands or preferences, so the architects could very much do what they wanted according to their visions of the ideal museum. Therefore its more a representative institution than a functional heritage establishment. 8. Name of the museum. Occupation is the common tradition during the history of the mankind. Countries, peoples and states can be divided into two fractions: occupants and occupied. Therefore every country / nation / state has a personal connection with this theme. And therefore it is an actual theme even today. Talking about the museum this vagueness of the issue is both the strong and the weak point. Using the term occupation in the name of the museum can be a good starting point: the display of the museum starts from the item of occupation in general, telling about its meaning and extent. After this broad introduction follows couple of words about the previous history of Estonia and its occupations through the centuries. This short overview about the history is in the same time also the prologue to the topic of the museum occupation of Estonia by Soviet Union. It is important to manifest the term of occupation, while its the keyword of the whole museum. One of the important places accenting it is in the name of the museum.The current name of the museum is quite long and not attractive one: the Museum of the Recent Past Occupations of Estonia. The museum should get a shorter name, which is simple to pronounce and which has a meaning as well. The meaning, which reflects the idea of the museum. The abbreviation of the long official name or a shorter name is useful also for the marketing purposes and for the creation of the museum symbolics. Name is a visit-card of the museum from this short word or combination of words starts the imagination of the content of the museum and before entering the museum building itself the potential visitor already has a preconception about the inner-side of the museum. A good name will support the general idea of the museum; for example: House of Horror in Budapest, Hungary; Pathways to Freedom in Gdansk, Poland; The Museum of Genocide Victims in Vilnius, Lithuania; Museum of Resistance in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. All these names manifest very clearly, what theyll present, what kind of attitude they have, against what they are fighting for. So does also the Museum of the Recent Past Occupations of Estonia. It presents the life under the occupation in the middle and second half of 20th century. In principle it can present also one side of the last 50 years the horrifying terror of communism, but the word occupation is much more than that. Therefore, when one wanted to create the communist horror museum, one should name it differently like for example the Hungarians did. Museum of Terror, Museum of Survival, Museum of Suffering, Museum of System, Museum of Memory these can be the right names for the museum, which presents the distress during the war and communist regime. Museum of Occupations is much larger term, which analyzes the period in different angles, both from the side of the victim and the winner. Also the content of this thesis supports that idea. Which are the resolutions for the name of the museum? The simplest solution is to shorten the name and to use only the main meaning of the institution: Museum of Occupation (Occupation Museum). Sounds best in Estonian.When one wants to be more specific, one can include into the heading also the occupation of Germany during the WW II: Museum of Occupations. The other possibility is to use the abbreviation of the long and official name. MEMO. The Museum of the Recent Past Occupations of Estonia. MEMO as a combination of Memory, Elu (Life), Myth, Occupation through these four keywords one can analyze the whole content of the museum. The other possibility is to abbreviate the name in Estonian Lhimineviku okupatsiOOnide Muuseum as LOOM. The Museum of the Recent Past Occupations of Estonia. Sounds best in English. The name reflects exactly the mirage of one epoch of the time, unfortunately in Estonian it has a completely different meaning.Personally I suggest using the first option Museum of Occupation (Okupatsioonimuuseum) while it reflects best the content and concept of the museum. The German occupation during the WW II was between the two Russian occupations and it didnt have the permanent influence in the society, therefore it shouldnt be mentioned separately in the heading of the museum. The concern of the museum is mainly the Russian occupation and that should be brought up also in the name of the museum. Next to this influential word in the heading of the museum it is not essential to emphasize the period of the museum; two equally strong terms doesnt suit together. One should choose between the content- or time boundaries. And at least for Estonians the term occupation will automatically connect with the Soviet invasion. Therefore the long describing heading is only a repeat of already understood phrase. 9. Remarks and notices. The following chapter consists of some remarks, which are important to remember and to work out before the opening of the museum. The opening is just one corner stone for the museum, from where the actual work begins. In the same time it is the most important time to market and present itself. The first impression is the most important one. All the activities should start right after the opening. The opening must show, that the museum is already a functioning institution.All the aspects of the museum should be planned into the smallest detail before the opening. Museum should have the strategy and written plan for the activities for the next five years. It should include both the essential and financial element. This will be the basis for the co-operation with sponsors, supporters and other institutions. System of future financing of the museum is unclear. Museum should start to analyze the possibilities of the future finance arrangements. Otherwise it is just a fragile institution, whose only fight is for its survival. Next to the opening the board must think about every surviving possibility of the institution especially because the museum has a quite insecure situation about the future. The next stage should be the analysis of the future possibilities for survival and the financial analysis of the museum budget.It is easy to create a new institution with lot of high-tech equipment and systems, but the real problem is keeping them working. When the museum display is based on the techniques, then the museum must provide also the continuation of this system. This needs lot of money and trained people. This might be one of the main shortcomings of the new museum. The museum management should before creating the whole system count how much does cost the maintaining of the system and decide afterwards. Besides they have to think about the other options, when these expenses are too high or produce some emergency plans for the occasions when the museum for example couldnt repair the system as quick as expected. Museum should keep the human touch. It should be at first the place of the people, not of the machines. The main idea of this museum should be to teach the people to think, to understand and to contemplate. A problem of many small museums museums preference is turned to the exhibition and to the memorial, other functions are unimportant: small entrance space (esp. in winter and in autumn), no communication rooms and few working chambers for the employees. Museum acts here as a representation building, not a lively working space. The idea of the museum wasnt clear before creating the museum space. Therefore the ideas of the architects are dominating. Also the main activities of the museum got clear after the architecture competition was over: to whom the museum is going to be built, what there can be shown etc. I.e. it is very difficult to manage with one school class in the museum (no separate room, no space for the entire class in the permanent exhibition, not enough toilets etc), but in the same time they are one of the main target groups of the museum. The museum is more a summer museum during summertime there are few clothes, more space and less confusion in the museum. One can only pretend the dirt, which will be carried into the museum during the autumn and winter, while the display area starts just after entering the museum. Most of these problems are solvable, so when the board together with the architects and designers works really hard with these topics, the weaknesses of some planning points are going to be fixed. 10. Conclusion.Museum of Recent Past Occupations is a unique experience in the museum field of Estonia because of two reasons: firstly, the museum building will be the first edifice built specially for a museum in Estonia and secondly because of the theme of the museum. The subject of this institution is a live issue; it has its social niche and need in the society. The huge gap of the history will attain its visual form. Because these reasons the careful planning of the museum institution is required. Planning period is the most important time for the forthcoming successful museum. As already a principle, the building works began before the final planning phase of the museum concept and the architects got quite free hands creating their vision of the museum. Therefore the museum looks like more the face of the architects than the museum employees. The aim of this thesis was to provide a working plan for the museum, consisting both theoretical and practical side of the museum; started with the overview about the trends in the history museum in general, then concentrated on the ideological and afterwards to the feasible issues of the museum planning. The concept and existence of the museum have been considered according to the political and cultural situation, interests of the potential visitors and wishes of the museum creators. Hopefully the thesis will become the basis for the written museum plan, which contains the concept and activities of the museum for the upcoming years. The plan should be also a useful tool for further co-operation with other organizations. This is also the reason, why the thesis didnt propose the more faraway plans. The thesis is concentrated only on these issues, which must be solved before the opening of museum in 2003. In principle, it was extremely interesting to take part of this process, to analyze the current situation and to suggest some ideas connected with the museum. Proposals are based on already existed plans and some other realistic ideas, which can be accomplished. One of the main key-words of the thesis was to follow the principle of reality; to suggest the ideas, which could be carried out in this particular museum space. Hopefully this thesis achieved these aims. 11. Used literature. A l e x a n d e r, Edward P. Museums in Motion. Nashville, 1979. Annual Museum Report 2001. Ministry of Culture, Tallinn, 2002.B a u d r i l l a r d, Jean. Simulacrums and Simulation. Kunst, 1999.* B o u r d i e u, Pierre & D a r b e l, Alain. The Love of Art: European Art Museums and Their Public. Stanford University Press, 1991. B o y l a n, Patric. Introduction to the theoretical and philosophical basis for modern management. 2001. [Study material]E c o, Umberto. Journey Into the Hyperreality. Vagabund, 1997.*E d s o n, Gary & D e a n, David. The Handbook for Museums. Routledge, 1996. F o u c a u l t, Michel. Discipline and Punish. Penguin Books, 1991.G r o y s, Boris. The role of museums when the National State Breaks Up ICOM News, No. 4/48, 1995.H e i n, Hilde S. The Museum in Transistion. A Philosphical Perspective. Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000.H e i n, George E. Constructivist Learning Theory. www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html H e l m e, Sirje. Party during the plague Eesti Ekspress, 4.10.2001.* H e r k e l, Andres. One should remember the historical horrors - Postimees, 14.06.2002.*History Museums in United States. Ed. by W. Leon & R. Rozenzweig. Illinois, 1989.H o o p e r-G r e e n h i l l, Eliean. Museums & the Shaping of Knowledge. Routledge, 1992. International Guidelines for Museum Object Information: The CIDOC Information Categories. Study material. 1995. J e n c k s, Charles. Black box, white cube, ersatz cathedral, shopping mall and rent-a-culture. - The Art Newspaper, No. 109, December, 2000. K i m m e l m a n n, Michael. Museums in a Quandary: Where Are the Ideals? New York Times, 26.08.2001.K o m i s s a r o v, Eha. XXI century art museum as a forum Sirp, 26.11.1999.*K o t l e r, Neil & K o t l e r, Philip. Museum Strategy and Marketing: Missions, Building Audiences, Generating Revenue & Resources. Jossey-Bass, 1998.K u r i n, Richard. Reflections of a Culture Broker. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. L a n g, Rein. Building thirst, Eesti Ekspress, 13.07.2000.*L o r d, Barry & L o r d, Gail Dexter. The Manual of Museum Management. London: The Stationary Office, 1998. Making Histories in Museums. Ed.by G.Kavanagh. Leicester University Press, 1996.M a l r a u x, Andr. The Museums Without Walls. The Voices of Silence. Doubleday Compani Inc. Garden City, New York, 1953.M a r a n d a, Lynn. Heritage, objects, collecting: the need for an ethical approach - ICOM Study Series, No.8, 2000.M a r o e v i , Ivo. Introduction to Museology. The European Approach. Mnchen: Verlag Dr. Christian Mller-Straten, 1998.M e r r i m a n n, Nick. Beyond the Glass Case. Leicester University Press, Leicester, London & New York, 1992.M e n s c h, Peter van. Characteristics of Exhibitions.[ Study material]M o o r e, Kevin. Museums and Popular Culture. Leicester University Press, 1997. M o o r e, Kevin. Museum Management. Leicester University Press, 1994.Museologia for Tomorrows World. International Symposium. Brno, 1996. Museum International No. 209 (Vol. 53, No. 1), 2001Museum Management 3: Marketing strategies Museum Practice, Issue 16, 2001. Museums and Memory. Ed. by Susan A. Crane. Stanford University Press, 2000.Palts compared an art museum with 20 schools, Eesti Pevaleht, 6.11.2001.*P a l t s, Tnis. Others` people money the art museum, Eesti Pevaleht, 3.09.2000.*Pathways to Freedom 1944 - 1989. Booklet. Solidarity Centre Foundation, Gdansk, 2001. P e v s n e r, Nikolai. History of Building Types. Chapter 8. Bollingen Series XXXV (19), Princeton, 1976. P r d i, Heiki. Changing world and museums Akadeemia, No. 9, 1996.* S t r a n s k y, Zbynek Z. Museology as a science Museologia, No. 15, XI, 1980R a i s m a, Mariann. Big Brother. Museology`s position and prospects Sirp, 15.03.2002.*R a i s m a, Mariann. No nation no problem Eesti Pevaleht, 25.08.2001.*R a i s m a, Mariann. Museums power and powers museum The Museum, No. 12, 2002.* Report of the Art Museum of Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2001.*S a s, Jan. Visitor studies. 2001. [Study material]S h m y r o v, Victor. The Gulag Museum, Museum International, No. 209 (Vol. 53, No. 1), 2001.S o o m r e, Maria-Kristiina. Modern Museum and the Tradition of National Gallery. Tallinn, 2002.* [Bachelor work] o l a, Tomislav. What is Museology? Papers on Museology I, Acta Universitatis Umensis 108. o l a, Tomislav. Bridges: a museum for a globalizing world Museum International, No. 209 (Vol. 53, No.1), 2001.The Dictionary of Art. Ed. by J. Turner. Vol. 22. Grove Dictionaries Inc. Macimillan Publishers Limited, New York, 1996.The Museum. A Reference Guide. Ed. by M.S. Shapiro & L.W. Kemp. Greenwood, 1990. The Politics of Display. Ed. by S.Macdonald. London: Routledge, 1998. Towards the Museums of the Future. New European Perspectives. Ed. by R.Miles and L. Zavala. Routledge, 1994.V a r r a k, Kaia. Estonian museums - Muuseum, nr.1, 1996.* V i e r e g g, Hildegard K. Museology, contemporay history and politics. ICOM Study Series, No.8, 2000.W a l s h, Kevin. The Representation of the Past. Routledge, 2001. W e i n b e r g J. & E l i e l i R. The Holocaust Museum in Washington. Rizzoli & The US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995._______* Material in Estonian. Used web-sites:  HYPERLINK http://www.ahm.ee www.ahm.ee History Museum of Estonia, Tallinn HYPERLINK http://www.annefrank.nl www.annefrank.nl Anne Frank Museum, Amsterdam HYPERLINK http://www.auschwitz-museum.oswiecim.pl www.auschwitz-museum.oswiecim.pl Memorial and Museum in Auschwitz-Birkenau HYPERLINK http://www.coldwar.org www.coldwar.org The Cold War Museum, Washington DC HYPERLINK http://www.erm.ee www.erm.ee Estonian National Museum, Tartu HYPERLINK http://www.hdg.de/zfl www.hdg.de/zfl Zeitgeschichtliches Forum, Leipzig HYPERLINK http://www.memorial.fr www.memorial.fr Le Memorial de Caen. A Museum for Peace, Caen HYPERLINK http://www.museumoftolerance.com www.museumoftolerance.com Museum of Tolerance, Los Angeles HYPERLINK http://www.natmus.dk www.natmus.dk Museum of Danish Resistance, Copenhagen HYPERLINK http://www.nhm.mil.no www.nhm.mil.no Norways Resistance Museum, Oslo HYPERLINK http://www.occupationmuseum.lv www.occupationmuseum.lv The Museum of The Occupation of Latvia 1940 1991, Riga HYPERLINK http://www.okupatsioon.ee www.okupatsioon.ee The Museum of Recent Past Occupations, Tallinn HYPERLINK http://www.oorlogsmuseum-overloon.nl www.oorlogsmuseum.nl National War and Resistance Museum, Overloon HYPERLINK http://www.tampere.fi/culture/lenin www.tampere.fi/culture/lenin The Lenin Museum, Tampere HYPERLINK http://www.tartu.ee/linnamuuseum www.tartu.ee/linnamuuseum Tartu City Museum, Tartuwww2.terrorhaza.hu House of Terror, Budapest HYPERLINK http://www.tdd.lt/genocid www.tdd.lt/genocid - The Museum of Genocide Victims, Vilnius HYPERLINK http://www.verzetsmuseum.org www.verzetsmuseum.org The Resistance Museum, Amsterdam*** HYPERLINK http://www.emy.kul.ee www.emy.kul.eewww.gennet.ee HYPERLINK http://www.icom.museum www.icom.museum www.neti.eewww.tourism.tallinn.ee Charles Jencks, Black box, white cube, ersatz cathedral, shopping mall and rent-a-culture. - The Art Newspaper, No. 109, December, 2000.  I. Maroevic, Introduction to Museology. The European Approach. Mnchen: Verlag Dr. Christian Mller-Straten, 1998, p. 12. (Henceforth: Maroevic) Z. Z. Stransky Museology as a science Museologia, No. 15, XI, 1980, p. 33 40. Read more: Museologia for Tomorrows World. International Symposium. Brno, 1996.  M. Raisma, Big Brother. Museology`s position and prospects Sirp, 15.03.2002.  Maroevic, p. 12. Ibidem. For a closer look about the main ideas, projects and a collection of the foundation: www.okupatsioon.ee P. Boylan, Introduction to the theoretical and philosophical basis for modern management. Study material, 2001. P. 11.  G.Kavanagh, Preface Making Histories in Museums. Ed.by G.Kavanagh, Leicester, 1996, p. 9. K.Walsh, The Representation of the Past. Routledge, 2001, p. 18. (Henceforth: Walsh) The idea of progression was also a justification of colonialism and later the reason erecting the colonial museums.  Walsh, p. 32. Boris Groys, The role of museums when the National State Breaks Up ICOM News, No. 4/48, 1995. Walsh, p. 36. Walsh, p. 66. Read more: K. Moore, Museums and Popular Culture. Leicester University Press, 1997, Chapters 5-7.  Blockbuster exhibitions as a hard sell approach emerged in 1970s, together with a declining interest about the museums from the side of the public and big cuts in the public funding in the side of the state cultural politics. K. Moore, Museum Management. Leicester University Press, 1994, p.12. Walsh, p. 68. Heritage is represented by attractive environments: open-air museums, theme parks, heritage centers etc., which create the excitement of the past.  S. A. Crane, Introduction Museums and Memory, Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 3.  Walsh, p. 4.  J. Baudrillard, Simulacrums and Simulation, Kunst, 1999, p. 74. W. Ernst, Archi(ve) textures of Museology Museums and Memory, Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 19. - Although W. Ernst meant the art museums, the term suits to the history museums as well.  Walsh, p. 3.  G.Kavanagh, Preface Making Histories in Museums. Ed.by G.Kavanagh, Leicester University Press, 1996, p. 8.  M. Foucault in S. Macdonald Exhibitions of power and powers of exhibition. The Politics of Display. Ed. by S.Macdonald. London: Routledge, 1998, p. 3.  M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish. Penguin Books, p. 170. Ibidem. Ibidem, p. 187. More precisely: Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), like communication media and cultural institutions. ISA-s act tandem with Repressive State Apparatuses, like police, the courts and the army to ensure the continual reproduction of the capitalist mode of production in favor of the dominant class. Term used by Althusser. In N. Merrimann, Beyond the Glass Case. Leicester University Press, Leicester, London & New York, 1992, p. 15. Ibidem. M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish. Penguin Books, p. 184. Ibidem. G.Kavanagh, Preface Making Histories in Museums. Ed.by G.Kavanagh, Leicester, 1996, p.10. Peter van Mensch`s classification of the museums read in Maroevic, p. 111.  By the way, Paolo Giovio was the man, who brought into the general use the word museum. E. P. Alexander, Museums in motion, Nashville, 1979, p. 39. (Henceforth: Alexander) Read more: Alexander, p. 40. For example Catherine di Medici had 550 portrait drawings about the famous man, Gonzagas had a special room containing the most beautiful women in the world and Catherine II bought such a Cabinet of Muses and Graces for her Peterhof palace. - Ibidem.  Maroevic, p. 37. H. K.Vieregg. Museology, contemporay history and politics. ICOM Study Series, No.8, 2000, p.17. H. Bazin in Maroevic, p. 42-43. This oscillation between personality-directed and event-directed concepts has been continuous, depending much on the philosophy of history.  As early as about 1630, Philip IV of Spain, commissioned Rubens to decorate a reception room in his palace, which show 12 great Spanish victories. The Historical Museum in Versailles was established in 1837 by Louis-Philippe. Alexander, p.41. E.Hooper-Greenhill in Maroevic, p. 49. M. Foucault in Maroevic, p. 49. G. Bazin in Maroevic, p. 52. E. Hooper-Greenhill, Museums & the Shaping of Knowledge. Leicester, 1992, p. 4.  W. Ernst, Archi(ve) textures in Museology - Museums and Memory, Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 18.  L. Maranda, Heritage, objects, collecting: the need for an ethical approach - Museum International, p. 11 12. B. Groys, The role of museums when the National State Breaks Up ICOM News, No. 4/48, 1995.  A. Malraux, The Museums Without Walls. The Voices of Silence. Doubleday Company Inc. Garden City, New York, 1953, p. 12-127. Museum International No. 209 (Vol. 53, No. 1, 2001) has dedicated to the museums of social history.  This idea is supported also by the museological theory, esp. by Tomislav ola. Read more: T. ola, What is Museology? Papers on Museology I, Acta Universitatis Umensis 108, p. 11-19.  Neil Harris in Michael Kimmelmann, Museums in a Quandary: Where Are the Ideals? New York Times, 26.08.2001. Ibidem. T. ola in Maroevic, p. 342. T. ola, Bridges: a museum for a globalizing world Museum International, No. 209 (Vol. 53, No.1), 2001, p. 57-58. Maroevic, p. 111. Maroevic, p. 62. Ibidem. Read more: The Dictionary of Art, Vol. 22, Grove Dictionaries Inc. Macmillan Publishers Limited, New York, 1996, p. 360-365; N. Pevsner, History of Building types. Chapter 8. Bollingen Series XXXV (19), Princeton, 1976, p. 111-134. Although the main emphasis is on the art museums, the generalizations adapt to the history museums as well.  Read more: Alexander, p. 42. The tradition of an open-air museum became very influent in United States (most well-known open-air museum in U.S. is Colonial Williamsburg, the capital of 18th century Virginia (est. in 1926); influential was also Greenfield Village at Dearborn, Michigan (est. in 1929) established by Henry Ford etc). Also the open-air museums in Soviet time East-Europe were important carriers of national identity the Open Air Museum of Estonia was established in 1953. Alexander, p. 43. Ibidem. - In United States the beginning of creation of historic hoses started in the second half of 19th century, the most well-known from this period is Mount Vernon, Washingtons plantation in Virginia. Scott T.Swank, The History Museum The Museum. A Reference Guide. Greenwood, 1990, p. 89 -90.  U. Eco, Journey Into the Hyperreality. Vagabund, 1997, p. 72. J. Weinberg & R. Elieli, The Holocaust Museum in Washington. Rizzoli & The US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995, p. 18. About forgetting the holocaust, please read Baudrillard`s article Holocaust in Simulacrums and Simulation. Kunst, 1999, p. 77-80.  Plea for the creation of an International Committee for Memorial Museums for Public Crimes against Humanity www.icom.museum. Mariann Raisma, No nation no problem Eesti Pevaleht, 25.08.2001. Walsh, p. 2.  Occupation, genocide or war, which is older than a century, is the theme of a general history museum already.  About holocaustal collecting: W. Ernst, Arci(ve) textures of Museology - Museums and Memory. Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 24-25.  Still today we can find some Lenin museums in Moscow, in Uljanovsk and in Tampere.  Victor Shmyrov, The Gulag Museum, Museum International, No. 209 (Vol. 53, No. 1, 2001), p. 25-28.  N. Kotler & P. Kotler, Museum Strategy and Martketing: Missions, Building Audiences, Gnerating Revenue & Resources. Jossey-Bass, 1998, p. 178. (Henceforth: Kotler) Last research about the Estonian museums was held in 1994. Kaia Varrak, Eesti muuseumid - Muuseum, nr.1, p. 4 5.  One can find the list of the main Estonian museums on the web site:  HYPERLINK http://www.neti.ee www.neti.ee and on the web-site of the Estonian Museums` Association: www.emy.kul.ee. There are 30 museums, which are financed by Ministry of Culture and 3 city museums, together with branches 69 museums. The zoo, botanical garden and the other museums, which belong to the other ministries and institutions, are not included into the report of the museums of Ministry of Culture. Its starting to change and one can find already some museums financed and maintained by private firms: i.e. museum of the chocolate factory Kalev and contemporary art gallery of Hansa Bank.  We (museum workers M.R.) are looking the culprits outside of the guild and think, that everything is in order with US our work is in the best possible level. H. Prdi, Changing world and museums Akadeemia, No. 9, 1996, p. 1932.  Most of the museums were founded just during the Soviet occupation period, more or less the same structure continues also nowadays. After re-gaining the independence only few museums have been founded (i.e. The Museum of Estonian Architecture, Mikkel Museum together with lately reconstructed buildings).  After the fast and fashionable modernization nobody is interested to keep some relicts of the old display or at least the memories of it. E.Komissarov, XXI century art museum as a forum Sirp, 26.11.1999.  Together with building the new art museum there has been a long and sharp discussion about the meaning and significance of the art museum in Estonia. Palts compared an art museum with 20 schools, Eesti Pevaleht, 6.11.2001; T.Palts Others` people money the art museum, Eesti Pevaleht, 3.09.2000; R.Lang Building thirst, Eesti Ekspress, 13.07.2000; S. Helme Party during the plague Eesti Ekspress, 4.10.2001. etc. Read more: Maria-Kristiina Soomre, Modern Museum and the Tradition of National Gallery. Bachelor work. Tallinn, 2002.  These numbers reflect the museums, which belong under the supervision of Ministry of Culture (see quat. 48). Annual Museum Report 2001. Ministry of Culture, Tallinn, 2002. There are also some very special museums in Estonia, i.e. The Mine Park Museum in East-Estonia or The Road Museum in South-Estonia.  H. S. Hein, The Museum in Transition. Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000, p. 31. (Henceforth: Hein) Actually there is at least two museums, which also deal with Soviet past firstly, in the Padaste manor there is a private museum, which collects the heritage about the collective farms in the Soviet period. Postimees, 2.08.2002. Another is the branch of Tartu City Museum, Cells of KGB, which behaves with KGB, crimes of communist regime and resistance movement during the Soviet occupation in Estonia (www.tartu.ee/linnamuuseum). The number of visitors is one of the lowest ones compared to the other state museums: in year 2001 only 35 000 visitors per a year. Using the glass as a main material for the external walls has its strengths and weaknesses: material allows effectively to dialogue with the everyday routine, in the same time it is difficult to provide the appropriate conditions for the museum space (light, UV-light, heat etc).  The usage principles of the library must be decided separately: is there a possibility to loan out the books or just use them in the library; also one has to decide about the guarantees of the protection against theft. Actually, the planning process of the Art Museum of Estonia started already in 1994. The total space of this building is 18 800 m2, useful space 14 000 m2. The Art Museum of Estonia should be ready in 2004. Hein, p. 50. The number of planned employees is very small one only four people (a director, two curators and a visitor service officer). The analysis about the inner structure please read in the Chapter 6.2.  Kotler, p. 174. There can be also a sixth element this lies in the mix of museum offerings: the extent to which the museum organizes or fails to organize the visitors time, activity and experience. - Ibidem.  B. Lord & G. D. Lord, The Manual of Museum Management. London: The Stationary Office, 1998, p. 133. (Henceforth: Lord) Whats fashionable in the contemporary museum in general, please read: R. Kurin, Reflections of a culture broker, Conclusion. Smithsonian Inst Press, 1997, p. 283 - 284 and T. ola in H. Prdi, Changing world and museums Akadeemia, No.9, 1996, p. 1945. Also the Museum of Occupations has tried to include similar ideas into its museological concept  A. Herkel, One should remember the historical horrors - Postimees, 14.06.2002, lk. 13. This idea is supported also by the architecture of the museum through the open space, the entrance through the memorial and caf around the memorial. Therefore this museum cant be only a commemorative museum, which sanctualizes the victims of the communist regime. In this meaning the museum isnt a traditional memorial museum.  Our means of course only some people from one generation the creators of the museum. In principle the result must also be based to the opinion of the potential visitors, what they want to see.  Hein, p. 32.  Ibidem.  K. Moore in Kotler, p. 179.  J. Shy in R. Kurin, Reflections of a culture broker, Ch. 5. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997, p 77.  Kotler, p. 176. The sacred memory museum, which also can be created, should although have a different space division and a name. The problems about the name of the museum will be analyzed in the Chapter 8.  This attitude was decided by creating a new and contemporary museum building. Hyperreal spaces are usually connected with historical houses, which have been formerly connected with some certain theme (in the case of memorial museums: building of repressive organs; building, where started the freedom movement etc).  These tensions and discourse between these poles is inherent in the essence of the Holocaust Museum in Washington and its educational work. - J. Weinberg & R. Elieli, The Holocaust Museum in Washington. Rizzoli & The US Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995, p. 19. The concentration to the life of the people was the selected choice out of various possibilities like Estonia as a state and a nation (general political history); repressions and terror; or fight for independence. These issues are only the co-themes of the general concept and might be the excellent themes for the temporary exhibitions.  Hein, p. 30.  For example: caf integrated in the museum space first time in Estonia and rare in the world. Kotler, p. 138. Kotler, p. 139-140. The service differentiation lies in the attractive and high-quality information, dining facilities and equipment for the disabled visitors; the personnel differentiation lies in the activity of security-guards and the technological differentiation rests in the computer-based information center (Estonian history + museums electronical database + Internet). Memorial consists of composition of growing trees through the museum.  Marketing is especially important when the museum isnt stabily and permanently supported by the state.  More closer please read: Kotler, p. 115-119. Kotler, p. 34 35. Kotler, p. 34. The planned personnel are four people: a director, two curators and a visitor service officer.  G. Edson & D. Dean, The Handbook for Museums, Routledge, 1996, p. 15. (Henceforth: Edson-Dean) More closer read: P. Boylan, Introduction to the theoretical and philosophical basis of modern management. Study material, 2001. P. 4; 11-12.  For more precise description of concrete job-descriptions, please read: Edson-Dean, p. 13-23, 194-225.  The other main modes of governance are line departments, arms length institutions and private ownerships. - Lord, p. 14. The governing system might change after the opening of the museum. It is conceivable, that the inner system doesnt change and the foundation as a governing system will continue. The other possibility is to become a state museum.  Lord, p. 16. It is also useful to have some members from outside of the circle some specialists from the other fields, businessmen or people from the ministries.  The principle of contracting out started in the end of 1970s, when the funding of the museums was diminished in a large scale. K. Moore, Museum Management. Leicester University Press, 1994, p.9. Lord, p. 36. Read more: Lord, p. 44. Lord, p. 45. International Guidelines for Museum Object Information: The CIDOC Information Categories. Study material. 1995, p. 1.  A collection with 11 000 items is an indisputable collection compared to the other museums of Estonia; smallest collections contain about 7000 objects, biggest one more than 1 million artifacts. Museum report of Ministry of Culture. Tallinn, 2001.  The museum should start various programs to collect the tangible and intangible heritage of the different themes.  Intangible materials are the memories, stories and traditions, which are recorded by the museum. This is the collection of comparative research and for the use in the communication programs.  This includes the duplicate items for the hands-on activities and communication programs and the unwanted objects, which museum sometimes has to accept. Lord, p. 69. Preferably the museum starts to apply the system, which is used in most of the museums in Estonia KVIS (System of Inventarisation of Cultural Heritage). More closer please read: www.gennet.ee  Lord, p. 64 65. Lord, p. 87. Publications may include: exhibition catalogues, catalogues of the collection, conference textbooks, guidebooks, highlights tour guides, albums of the collection, annual journals / magazines, theme books, leaflets, brochures, posters, postcards, teachers` materials, children albums, videos and CD-ROMs about the Estonian history and other material.  Hein, p. 33. Creating the educational programs one has to include different types of study methodologies Read more: G. Hein, Constructivist Learning Theory.  HYPERLINK http://www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources www.exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/constructivistlearning.html.  Lord, p. 114. History of Estonia in 20th century and worlds/European history of the 20th century is in the school program in the 9 and 11-12 grade. The museum can effectively use the room of Union of Defense as a study center. Teachers will have a special education program about the potentialities and resources of the museum and special schooling connected with the different study programs.  Idea has been taken from Kotler, p. 95. Kotler, p. 105. Also the tourist agencies will have special information days in the museum, where the different visit possibilities will be introduced. www.tourism.tallinn.ee The guides of the agencies must have a previous schooling program before they can lead the tour in the museum.  This works so only in this museum. There are museums, which have special programs also for the tourists, but because of the specialty of the museum these doesnt suit to the context. Read more: G. Kulik, Designing the Past History Museums in United States. Ed. by W. Leon & R. Rozenzweig, Illinois, 1989, p. 28. Lord, p. 134. P. van Mensch, Characteristics of exhibitions. Study material. P. 1 14. M. Kimmelmann, Museums in a Quandary: Where Are the Ideals? New York Times, 26.08. 2001.  This method has been decided as a basis of the exhibition by the board of the Kistler-Ritso Foundation. Another possibility for the permanent display is to divide the exhibition into thematical groups: Estonia in the WW II, Soviet Socialist Republic of Estonia (ENSV), Deportation, Censorship, Opposition to the Occupation, Collective Farm and Agriculture, Economy and Finances, Religion, Culture and Sports, Youth Politics and Education, Singing Revolution. Each of these themes describes the problem in deep through the whole occupation period. This type allows effectively describing the differences of one issue through the 50 years and allows being more critical one, while it goes straight into the pain spot of the problem. Design uses partly the period settings materials creating the atmosphere, which hints to the certain theme. While the Kistler-Ritso Foundation decided to use the chronological principle, it is not necessary to analyze this possibility in a more profound way.  P. Vergo, The rhetoric of Display Towards the Museums of the Future. New European Perspectives. Ed. by Roger Miles and Lauro Zavala. Routledge, 1994, p. 158 - 159. This can be executed in two ways: a systematical research (both oral or written versions are possible) in the different (potential) target groups of the museum or a discussion with randomly chosen people. Although the latter one is easier to accomplish, the first alternative might give the more effective answers. This research should be carried out during the planning phase of the museum. An appropriate visiting time is also an important clue for the tourist agencies the museum should be able to spend the time of the clients according to the need (1/2 hour 1 hours).  R. Sullivan in Kotler, p. 176-177. By Enn Tarvel the recent history of Estonia can be divided into the following time periods: 1939 - 1944; 1944 - 1950; 1950 1956; 1956 1965; 1965 1968; 1968 1979; 1979 1987; 1987 1991. www.okupatsioon.ee Hudson meant the circular arrangement for the whole display. K. Hudson The Wrong and the Right Road for Museums Nordisk Museologi, No. 1, 1996, p. 125 126. It is typical that in this kind of small museum there isnt enough space to move in smaller or bigger groups.  Communication system on the ceiling, which allows hearing the sound only in the certain area under the system. Much used in the history museums.  When this system is not possible to execute, then also the separate music-corners with hear-phones can be created.  In this case the music system can be inside the car.  The cell could be placed not in the front of the exhibition, but inside the back wall, inside the planned toilet (on the plan room 103) or in the film room with the door towards the permanent display. More closer read: B.Joseph Pine II & James H. Gilmore The Experience Economy Museum News, 78 (2), 1999, p. 45 48.  In this case the headphones must be used. Technical room is needed also for the preparation of the exhibition.  This panel can be a separate label next to the building, which has an independent value, in the same time it is connected with the idea of the museum building.  It is effective to use signs inside the museum and on the leaflets.  Lord, p. 120. The audience was analyzed in the Chapter 5.6. Lord, p. 120. More closer please read: Museum Management 3: Marketing strategies Museum practice, Issue 16, 2001, p. 39. Ibidem., p. 41-42.  Kotler, p. 236. Please read closer about the theme: Kotler, p. 152-156 and J. Sas, Visitor studies. Study material. 2001. Recording the data about the visitors is more or less automatic. Data is needed for monthly rapport of the museum visitors.  While the museum will be situated in the center of the city, there is no possibility to organize more parking places next to the museum, but quite close to the museum (ca 500 m) there is a parking lot for the busses and cars.  This is a common tradition in many countries and has been started also in Estonia.  While most of the cultural institutions are closed on Mondays it would be nice to keep at least some of them open as well. While the number of employees is so small, it important to give them two free days in a week. If necessary, some of the booked groups and school classes may enter also on Tuesday and Wednesday. Read more: Edson-Dean, p. 54.  Lord, p. 150 157. Edson-Dean, p. 61. More closer please read: Edson-Dean, p. 54-55. Edson-Dean, p. 61. This system is useful only when it turns cheaper in general and when this arrangement proves its efficiency.  This should be obligatory to all the history students, who are studying more profoundly 20th century history at the university. Edson-Dean, p. 54. 1 EUR = 15,5 EEK Lord, p. 143 144. The Art Museum of Estonia has been dealing with the functional brief of the new museum building for years. More closer: Report of the Art Museum of Estonia 2000. Tallinn 2001. Despite the space problems this thesis doesnt deal with the problem of the environmental security, preventive conservation and risk management. These problems need definitely a special analysis, while the collection consists of various materials and the amount of the traveling exhibitions is high. Therefore the museum must respond to the overall museological standards.  It is possible to use the upper side of the seminar room screen for showing the documentaries or other films during the opening hours.  This introduction can be in the lobby of the museum, on the separate label, on the glass or on the lower side of the information desk.  As it has said before, also the architecture of this building doesnt support this type of museum.  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